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Academy Award for Best Actor

Award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

The Academy Award for Best Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given to an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance in a leading role in a film released that year. The award is traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Actress winner.

The 1st Academy Awards were held in 1929 with Emil Jannings receiving the award for his roles in The Last Command (1928) and The Way of All Flesh (1927).[1] Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS; winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy.[2]

In the first three years of the awards, actors were nominated as the best in their categories. At that time, all of their work during the qualifying period (as many as three films, in some cases) was listed after the award.[3] However, during the 3rd ceremony held in 1930, only one of those films was cited in each winner's final award, even though each of the acting winners had two films following their names on the ballots.[4] The following year, this system was replaced by the current system in which an actor is nominated for a specific performance in a single film.[3] Starting with the 9th ceremony held in 1937, the category was officially limited to five nominations per year.[3]

Since its inception, the award has been given to 83 actors. Daniel Day-Lewis has received the most awards in this category, with three wins. Spencer Tracy and Laurence Olivier were nominated on nine occasions, more than any other actor. Peter O'Toole is the most nominated actor in this category without a single win. James Dean remains the only actor to have been posthumously nominated in this category on more than one occasion. Peter Finch is the only actor to have received the award posthumously, for Network (1976). Italian actor Roberto Benigni was the first non-English performance winner for Life Is Beautiful (1997). At age 29, Adrien Brody became the youngest actor to win this award for The Pianist (2002), while Anthony Hopkins, at age 83, became the oldest winner for The Father (2020). As of the 93rd Academy Awards, Hopkins is the most recent winner in this category for his portrayal of Anthony in The Father.

Winners and nominees[edit]

In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, and generally correspond to the year of film release in Los Angeles County; the ceremonies are always held the following year.[5] For the first five ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned twelve months, from August 1 to July 31.[6] For the 6th ceremony held in 1934, the eligibility period lasted from August 1, 1932, to December 31, 1933.[6] Since the 7th ceremony held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31.[6]

Award winnerIndicates the winner
§ Indicates winner who refused the award
Indicates posthumous winner

1920s[edit]

1930s[edit]

1940s[edit]

1950s[edit]

1960s[edit]

1970s[edit]

1980s[edit]

1990s[edit]

Photo of Tom Hanks at the U.S. Department of State in Washington, D.C. in 2014.
Tom Hankswas the second of two actors to win this award over two consecutive years, winning for Philadelphia
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academy_Award_for_Best_Actor
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The Oscar nominations for 92nd Academy Awards will be announced on January 13, 2020 at 5:20 AM PST/8:20 AM EST by actors John Cho and Issa Rae via a live, global stream. Watch below.

92nd_Oscar_Nominations

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92nd Academy Awards

The 92nd Academy Awards ceremony, is when the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) presents its annual Academy Awards to honor the best films of 2019, on February 9, 2020 at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, California without a host yet. Read More...

Variety's Oscar predictions in all 24 categories.

The presents have been unwrapped. The year is winding down. Superlatives and top 10 lists are flying around from critics across the globe and everything in the Oscar hunt has finally been seen. So how about a thorough look at what might be in store on Jan. 23, when the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences announces nominees for the 90th annual Oscars? Read More

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  • The Hurt Locker sets the record as the lowest grossing movie to win Best Movie in the Oscars
  • Oliver! is the only G-rated film to win Best Picture (the last G-Rated film to date to be nominated for Best Picture is Toy Story 3)
  • The “Red carpet” at the Kodak Theatre is about 500 feet long
  • Kevin O'Connell, the Oscars' unluckiest nominee, holds the record for the most nominations, 20, and no wins.
  • Until 2010, when Kathryn Bigelow won, no woman had ever won the Oscar for best director
  • The only movie to ever completely sweep the show by winning every award it was nominated for was The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King at the 76th Academy Awards. It is tied for the most wins of all time with Ben-Hur and Titanic.
  • In 1940, the Los Angeles Times printed an accurate list of the Academy winners. Many arrived at the ceremony already aware they’d won. Since then, there’s much more secrecy surrounding the results.
  • Walt Disney was the most decorated person at any single Academy Award ceremony. In 1953, he took home trophies for best documentary feature, best documentary short subject, best cartoon short subject and best two-reel short subject.
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On Sunday, four film folk — actress Geena Davis, director David Lynch, actor Wes Studi and director Lina Wertmuller — were feted by the motion picture academy at the Governors Awards. This non-televised event has been around since 2009 when the academy moved these de facto lifetime achievement awards off of the Oscars.

By not being part of the televised Academy Awards, this has meant more people could be honored each year as there were no time constraints to consider. To that end there have been four honorees every year but two (2011, 2015) since 2009. And this change has allowed for a wider range of talents to be tapped.

As detailed below, all but one of the academy’s 17 branches — Visual Effects — are now represented among the roster of 135 winners of honorary Oscars. In the case of Visual Effects, the academy has presented special achievement awards to a host of films in years in which there was no competitive category.

Note: This full list was compiled using the academy’s Honorary Index, which allows for filtering by branch. It does not include companies and organizations which were honored. Nor does it include those 10 juvenile performers who received miniature statuettes; the many others who received certificates, scrolls, plaques and medals; and the recipients of the Jean Hersholt humanitarian award (which Davis got) and the Irving G. Thalberg memorial award (who received a bust of the late producer).

Honorees indicated by an * are listed in the database under the term “Personalities” and have been assigned to the branch in which they are most identified, unless they were nominated or won in a different category (e.g., the actor Robert Redford who won an Oscar for directing “Ordinary People”).

Three individuals were honored for a specific production, with Charlie Chaplin (“The Circus”) and Laurence Olivier (“Henry V”) being assigned to the Actors branch while Walter Wanger (“Joan of Arc”) is listed under Producers.

In addition, 15 people received honorary awards for work outside of the branches and they are detailed at the bottom of this post.

Five were feted for Choreography (of these, you will find Fred Astaire and Gene Kelly under Actors and Jerome Robbins under Directors);

Five Personalities;

Three for Film Preservation; and

Two for Stunts

The text under each name is the official description of the reason for the honorary award being made (the academy has not released the wording of the citations for the upcoming honorees).

ACTORS (51)
1927/28 (1st): Charles Chaplin (listed under Production)
for acting, writing, directing and producing The Circus.

1937 (10th): Edgar Bergen
for his outstanding comedy creation, “Charlie McCarthy.”

1939 (12th): Douglas Fairbanks*
recognizing the unique and outstanding contribution of Douglas Fairbanks, first President of the Academy, to the international development of the motion picture.

1940 (13th): Bob Hope*
in recognition of his unselfish services to the Motion Picture Industry.

1946 (19th): Laurence Olivier (listed under Production)
for his outstanding achievement as actor, producer and director in bringing Henry V to the screen.

1946 (19th): Harold Russell
for bringing hope and courage to his fellow veterans through his appearance in The Best Years of Our Lives.

1947 (20th): James Baskett
for his able and heart-warming characterization of Uncle Remus, friend and story teller to the children of the world in Walt Disney’s Song of the South.

1949 (22nd): Fred Astaire (listed under Choreography)
for his unique artistry and his contributions to the technique of musical pictures.

1949 (22nd): Jean Hersholt*
for distinguished service to the motion picture industry.

1950 (23rd): George Murphy*
for his services in interpreting the film industry to the country at large.

1951 (24th): Gene Kelly (listed under Choreography)
in appreciation of his versatility as an actor, singer, director and dancer, and specifically for his brilliant achievements in the art of choreography on film.

1952 (25th): Bob Hope*
for his contribution to the laughter of the world, his service to the motion picture industry, and his devotion to the American premise.

1952 (25th): Harold Lloyd
master comedian and good citizen.

1954 (27th): Greta Garbo
for her unforgettable screen performances.

1954 (27th): Danny Kaye*
for his unique talents, his service to the Academy, the motion picture industry, and the American people.

1956 (29th): Eddie Cantor*
for distinguished service to the film industry.

1958 (31st): Maurice Chevalier
for his contributions to the world of entertainment for more than half a century.

1959 (32nd): Buster Keaton
for his unique talents which brought immortal comedies to the screen.

1960 (33rd): Gary Cooper
for his many memorable screen performances and the international recognition he, as an individual, has gained for the motion picture industry.

1960 (33rd): Stan Laurel
for his creative pioneering in the field of cinema comedy.

1969 (42nd): Cary Grant
for his unique mastery of the art of screen acting with the respect and affection of his colleagues.

1970 (43rd): Lillian Gish
for superlative artistry and for distinguished contribution to the progress of motion pictures.

1971 (44th): Charles Chaplin*
for the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century.

1972 (45th): Edward G. Robinson
who achieved greatness as a player, a patron of the arts and a dedicated citizen…in sum, a Renaissance man. From his friends in the industry he loves.

1973 (46th): Groucho Marx
in recognition of his brilliant creativity and for the unequalled achievements of the Marx Brothers in the art of motion picture comedy.

1975 (48th): Mary Pickford*
in recognition of her unique contributions to the film industry and the development of film as an artistic medium.

1978 (51st): Laurence Olivier*
for the full body of his work, for the unique achievements of his entire career and his lifetime of contribution to the art of film.

1979 (52nd): Alec Guinness
for advancing the art of screen acting through a host of memorable and distinguished performances.

1980 (53rd): Henry Fonda
the consummate actor, in recognition of his brilliant accomplishments and enduring contribution to the art of motion pictures.

1981 (54th): Barbara Stanwyck
for superlative creativity and unique contribution to the art of screen acting.

1982 (55th): Mickey Rooney
in recognition of his 60 years of versatility in a variety of memorable film performances.

1984 (57th): James Stewart
for his fifty years of memorable performances. For his high ideals both on and off the screen. With the respect and affection of his colleagues.

1985 (58th): Paul Newman
in recognition of his many and memorable compelling screen performances and for his personal integrity and dedication to his craft.

1986 (59th): Ralph Bellamy
for his unique artistry and his distinguished service to the profession of acting.

1990 (63rd): Sophia Loren
one of the genuine treasures of world cinema who, in a career rich with memorable performances, has added permanent luster to our art form.

1990 (63rd): Myrna Loy
in recognition of her extraordinary qualities both on screen and off, with appreciation for a lifetime’s worth of indelible performances.

1993 (66th): Deborah Kerr
in appreciation for a full career’s worth of elegant and beautifully crafted performances.

1995 (68th): Kirk Douglas
for fifty years as a creative and moral force in the motion picture community.

2001 (74th): Sidney Poitier*
in recognition of his remarkable accomplishments as an artist and as a human being.

2002 (75th): Peter O’Toole
whose remarkable talents have provided cinema history with some of its most memorable characters.

2009 (82nd): Lauren Bacall
in recognition of her central place in the golden age of motion pictures.

2010 (83rd): Eli Wallach
for a lifetime’s worth of indelible screen characters.

2011 (84th): James Earl Jones
for his legacy of consistent excellence and uncommon versatility.

2013 (86th): Angela Lansbury
an entertainment icon who has created some of cinema’s most memorable characters, inspiring generations of actors.

2013 (86th): Steve Martin*
in recognition of his extraordinary talents and the unique inspiration he has brought to the art of motion pictures.

2014 (87th): Maureen O’Hara
one of Hollywood’s brightest stars, whose inspiring performances glowed with passion, warmth and strength.

2015 (88th): Gena Rowlands
who has illuminated the human experience through her brilliant, passionate and fearless performances.

2016 (89th): Jackie Chan
charming audiences with his dazzling athleticism, inventive stunt work and boundless charisma

2017 (90th): Donald Sutherland
for a lifetime of indelible characters, rendered with unwavering truthfulness.

2018 (91st): Cicely Tyson
whose unforgettable performances and personal integrity have inspired generations of filmmakers, actors and audiences.

2019 (92nd): Wes Studi

ANIMATION – SHORT FILMS AND FEATURE (6)
1931/32 (5th): Walt Disney
for the creation of “Mickey Mouse.”

1938 (11th): Walt Disney
for Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, recognized as a significant screen innovation which has charmed millions and pioneered a great new entertainment field for the motion picture cartoon.

1943 (16th): George Pal
for the development of novel methods and techniques in the production of short subjects known as Puppetoons.

1978 (51st): Walter Lantz
for bringing joy and laughter to every part of the world through his unique animated motion pictures.

1995 (68th): Chuck Jones
for the creation of classic cartoons which have brought worldwide joy for more than half a century.

2014 (87th): Hayao Miyazaki
a master storyteller whose animated artistry has inspired filmmakers and audiences around the world.

CASTING (1)
2016 (89th): Lynn Stalmaster
has been instrumental in the careers of many celebrated actors.

CINEMATOGRAPHERS (4) 
1952 (25th): George Alfred Mitchell
for the design and development of the camera which bears his name and for his continued and dominant presence in the field of cinematography.

2000 (73rd): Jack Cardiff
master of light and color.

2009 (82nd): Gordon Willis
for unsurpassed mastery of light, shadow, color and motion.

2017 (90th): Owen Roizman
whose expansive visual style and technical innovation have advanced the art of cinematography.

COSTUME DESIGNERS (1)
2013 (86th): Piero Tosi, a visionary whose incomparable costume designs shaped timeless, living art in motion pictures.

DESIGNERS (ART DIRECTORS) (1)
2007 (80th): Robert Boyle
in recognition of one of cinema’s great careers in art direction.

DIRECTORS (25)
1935 (8th): David Wark Griffith
for his distinguished creative achievements as director and producer and his invaluable initiative and lasting contributions to the progress of the motion picture arts.

1937 (10th): Mack Sennett
for his lasting contribution to the comedy technique of the screen, the basic principles of which are as important today as when they were first put into practice, the Academy presents a Special Award to that master of fun, discoverer of stars, sympathetic, kindly, understanding comedy genius

1946 (19th): Ernst Lubitsch
for his distinguished contributions to the art of the motion picture.

1949 (22nd): Cecil B. DeMille
distinguished motion picture pioneer, for 37 years of brilliant showmanship.

1952 (25th): Merian C. Cooper
for his many innovations and contributions to the art of motion pictures.

1961 (34th): Jerome Robbins (listed under Choreography; same year he won Best Director Oscar with Robert Wise for “West Side Story”)
for his brilliant achievements in the art of choreography on film.

1974 (47th): Howard Hawks
A master American filmmaker whose creative efforts hold a distinguished place in world cinema

1974 (47th): Jean Renoir
a genius who, with grace, responsibility and enviable devotion through silent film, sound film, feature, documentary and television, has won the world’s admiration.

1978 (51st): King Vidor
for his incomparable achievements as a cinematic creator and innovator.

1989 (62nd): Akira Kurosawa
for accomplishments that have inspired, delighted, enriched and entertained audiences and influenced filmmakers throughout the world.

1991 (64th): Satyajit Ray
in recognition of his rare mastery of the art of motion pictures, and of his profound humanitarian outlook, which has had an indelible influence on filmmakers and audiences throughout the world.

1992 (65th): Federico Fellini
in recognition of his place as one of the screen’s master storytellers.

1994 (67th): Michelangelo Antonioni
in recognition of his place as one of the cinema’s master visual stylists.

1997 (70th): Stanley Donen
in appreciation of a body of work marked by grace, elegance, wit and visual innovation.

1998 (71st): Elia Kazan
in recognition of his indelible contributions to the art of motion picture direction.

1999 (72nd): Andrzej Wajda
in recognition of five decades of extraordinary film direction.

2001 (74th): Robert Redford*
Actor, director, producer, creator of Sundance, inspiration to independent and innovative filmmakers everywhere.

2003 (76th): Blake Edwards*
in recognition of his writing, directing and producing an extraordinary body of work for the screen.

2004 (77th): Sidney Lumet*
in recognition of his brilliant services to screenwriters, performers and the art of the motion picture.

2005 (78th): Robert Altman
in recognition of a career that has repeatedly reinvented the art form and inspired filmmakers and audiences alike.

2009 (82nd): Roger Corman*
for his rich engendering of films and filmmakers.

2010 (83rd): Jean-Luc Godard*
for passion. For confrontation. For a new kind of cinema.

2017 (90th): Charles Burnett
a resolutely independent and influential film pioneer who has chronicled the lives of black Americans with eloquence and insight.

2019 (92nd): David Lynch

2019 (92nd): Lina Wertmuller

DOCUMENTARY (5)
1953 (26th): Pete Smith
for his witty and pungent observations on the American scene in his series of “Pete Smith Specialties.”

1961 (34th): William L. Hendricks
for his outstanding patriotic service in the conception, writing and production of the Marine Corps film, A Force in Readiness, which has brought honor to the Academy and the motion picture industry.

2012 (85th): D.A. Pennebaker
who redefined the language of film and taught a generation of filmmakers to look to reality for inspiration.

2016 (89th): Frederick Wiseman
illuminating lives in the context of social, cultural and government institutions.

2017 (90th): Agnès Varda
whose compassion and curiosity inform a uniquely personal cinema.

EXECUTIVES (4)
1948 (21st): Adolph Zukor*
a man who has been called the father of the feature film in America, for his services to the industry over a period of forty years.

1950 (23rd): Louis B. Mayer*
for distinguished service to the motion picture industry.

1952 (25th): Joseph M. Schenck*
for long and distinguished service to the motion picture industry.

1966 (39th): Y. Frank Freeman*
for unusual and outstanding service to the Academy during his thirty years in Hollywood.

FILM EDITORS (2)
1977 (50th): Margaret Booth
for her exceptional contribution to the art of film editing in the motion picture industry.

2016 (89th): Anne Coates
she has worked side by side with many leading directors on an impressive range of films.

MAKEUP ARTISTS & HAIRSTYLISTS (3)
1964 (37th): William Tuttle
for his outstanding make-up achievement for 7 Faces of Dr. Lao.

1968 (41st): John Chambers
for his outstanding makeup achievement for Planet of the Apes.

2011 (84th): Dick Smith
for his unparalleled mastery of texture, shade, form and illusion.

MUSIC (3)
1985 (58th): Alex North
in recognition of his brilliant artistry in the creation of memorable music for a host of distinguished motion pictures.

2006 (79th): Ennio Morricone
in recognition of his magnificent and multifaceted contributions to the art of film music.

2018 (91st): Lalo Schifrin
in recognition of his unique musical style, compositional integrity and influential contributions to the art of film scoring.

PRODUCERS (10)
1945 (18th): Walter Wanger*
for his six years service as President of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

1947 (20th): Colonel William N. Selig, Albert E. Smith, Thomas Armat and George K. Spoor*
(one of) the small group of pioneers whose belief in a new medium, and whose contributions to its development, blazed the trail along which the motion picture has progressed, in their lifetime, from obscurity to world-wide acclaim.

1948 (21st): Walter Wanger (listed under Production)
for distinguished service to the industry in adding to its moral stature in the world community by his production of the picture Joan of Arc.

1957 (30th): B.B. Kahane*
for distinguished service to the motion picture industry.

1957 (30th): Gilbert M. (“Broncho Billy”) Anderson*
motion picture pioneer, for his contributions to the development of motion pictures as entertainment.

1967 (40th): Arthur Freed*
for distinguished service to the Academy and the production of six top-rated Awards telecasts.

1983 (56th): Hal Roach*
in recognition of his unparalleled record of distinguished contributions to the motion picture art form.

PUBLICITY (1)
2018 (91st): Marvin Levy
for an exemplary career in publicity that has brought films to the minds, hearts and souls of audiences all over the world.

SOUND (1)
1959 (32nd): Lee De Forest
for his pioneering inventions which brought sound to the motion picture.

WRITERS (5)
1957 (30th): Charles Brackett*
for outstanding service to the Academy.

1970 (43rd): Orson Welles*
for superlative artistry and versatility in the creation of motion pictures.

2000 (73rd): Ernest Lehman
in appreciation of a body of varied and enduring work.

2014 (87th): Jean-Claude Carrière
whose elegantly crafted screenplays elevate the art of screenwriting to the level of literature.

2015 (88th): Spike Lee*
filmmaker, educator, motivator, iconoclast, artist.

PERSONALITIES (5)
1953 (26th): Joseph I. Breen
for his conscientious, open-minded and dignified management of the Motion Picture Production Code.

1961 (34th): Fred L. Metzler
for his dedication and outstanding service to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

1972 (45th): Charles S. Boren
Leader for 38 years of the industry’s enlightened labor relations and architect of its policy of non-discrimination. With the respect and affection of all who work in films.

1979 (52nd): Hal Elias
for his dedication and distinguished service to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

2012 (85th): George Stevens, Jr.
a tireless champion of the arts in America and especially that most American of arts: the Hollywood film.

FILM PRESERVATION (3)
1954 (27th): Kemp R. Niver
for the development of the Renovare Process which has made possible the restoration of the Library of Congress Paper Film Collection.

1973 (46th): Henri Langlois
for his devotion to the art of film, his massive contributions in preserving its past and his unswerving faith in its future.

2010 (83rd): Kevin Brownlow
for the wise and devoted chronicling of the cinematic parade.

CHOREOGRAPHY (2)
(Fred Astaire (1949), Gene Kelly (1951) and Jerome Robbins (1961) are listed in the Index under this category; the first two have been assigned to Actors, the latter to Directors.)

1968 (41st): Onna White
for her outstanding choreography achievement for Oliver!

1996 (69th):Michael Kidd
in recognition of his services to the art of the dance in the art of the screen.

STUNTS (2)
1966 (39th): Yakima Canutt
for achievements as a stunt man and for developing safety devices to protect stunt men everywhere.

2012 (85th): Hal Needham
an innovator, mentor, and master technician who elevated his craft to an art and made the impossible look easy.

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Olivia Colman wins Best Actress

The 75th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) took place on March 23, 2003, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST / 8:30 p.m. EST. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards (commonly referred to as Oscars) in 24 categories honoring films released in 2002. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates and was directed by Louis J. Horvitz. Actor Steve Martin hosted for the second time, having previously presided over the 73rd Academy Awards ceremony held in 2001. Three weeks earlier in a ceremony at Regent Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California held on March 1, 2003, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Kate Hudson.

Chicago won six awards including Best Picture.[6][7] Other winners included The Pianist with three awards, Frida and The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers with two, and Adaptation, Bowling for Columbine, The ChubbChubbs!, 8 Mile, The Hours, Nowhere in Africa, Road to Perdition, Spirited Away, Talk to Her, This Charming Man, and Twin Towers with one. The telecast garnered about 33 million viewers in the United States, making it the least watched and lowest rated televised Oscar ceremony at the time.

Best Picture

See also: Best Picture

Winner
Chicago — Martin Richards
Nominees
Gangs of New York — Alberto Grimaldi, Harvey Weinstein
The Hours — Scott Rudin, Robert Fox
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers — Barrie M. Osborne, Fran Walsh, Peter Jackson
The Pianist — Roman Polanski, Robert Benmussa, Alain Sarde

Best Actor

See also: Best Actor

Winner
Adrien Brody — The Pianist
Nominees
Nicolas Cage — Adaptation.
Michael Caine — The Quiet American
Daniel Day-Lewis — Gangs of New York
Jack Nicholson — About Schmidt

Best Actress

See also: Best Actress

Winner
Nicole Kidman — The Hours
Nominees
Salma Hayek — Frida
Diane Lane — Unfaithful
Julianne Moore — Far from Heaven
Renee Zellweger — Chicago

Best Supporting Actor

See also: Best Supporting Actor

Winner
Chris Cooper — Adaptation.
Nominees
Ed Harris — The Hours
Paul Newman — Road to Perdition
John C. Reilly — Chicago
Christopher Walken — Catch Me If You Can

Best Supporting Actress

See also: Best Supporting Actress

Winner
Catherine Zeta-Jones — Chicago
Nominees
Kathy Bates — About Schmidt
Julianne Moore — The Hours
Queen Latifah — Chicago
Meryl Streep — Adaptation.

Best Director

See also: Best Director

Winner
The Pianist — Roman Polanski
Nominees
Chicago — Rob Marshall
Gangs of New York — Martin Scorsese
The Hours — Stephen Daldry
Talk to Her — Pedro Almodóvar

Best Original Screenplay

See also: Best Original Screenplay

Winner
Talk to Her — Pedro Almodóvar
Nominees
Far from Heaven — Todd Haynes
Gangs of New York — Jay Cocks, Steven Zaillian, Kenneth Lonergan
My Big Fat Greek Wedding — Nia Vardalos
Y Tu Mamá También — Carlos Cuarón, Alfonso Cuarón

Best Adapted Screenplay

See also: Best Adapted Screenplay

Winner
The Pianist — Ronald Harwood
Nominees
About a Boy — Peter Hedges,Chris Weitz, Paul Weitz
Adaptation. — Charlie Kaufman
Chicago — Bill Condon
The Hours — David Hare

Best Animated Feature

See also: Best Animated Feature

Winner
Spirited Away — Hayao Miyazaki
Nominees
Ice Age — Chris Wedge
Lilo & Stitch — Chris Sanders
Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron — Jeffrey Katzenberg
Treasure Planet — Ron Clements

Best Documentary Feature

See also: Best Documentary Feature

Winner
Bowling for Columbine — Michael Moore, Michael Donovan
Nominees
Daughter from Danang — Gail Dolgin, Vicente Franco
Prisoner of Paradise — Malcolm Clarke, Stuart Sender
Spellbound — Jeffrey Blitz, Sean Welch
Winged Migration — Jacques Perrin

Best Documentary Short

See also: Best Documentary Short

Winner
Twin Towers — Bill Guttentag, Robert David Port
Nominees
The Collector of Bedford Street — Alice Elliott
Mighty Times: The Legacy of Rosa Parks — Robert Hudson, Bobby Houston
Why Can't We Be a Family Again? — Roger Weisberg, Murray Nossel

Best Animated Short

See also: Best Animated Short

Winner
The ChubbChubbs! — Eric Armstrong
Nominees
The Cathedral — Tomek Baginski
Das Rad — Chris Stenner, Heidi Wittlinger
Mike's New Car — Pete Docter, Roger Gould
Mt. Head — Koji Yamamura

Best Live Action Short

See also: Best Live Action Short

Winner
This Charming Man (Der Er En Yndig Mand) — Martin Strange-Hansen, Mie Andreasen
Nominees
Fait D'Hiver — Dirk Beliën, Anja Daelemans
I'll Wait for the Next One… (J'Attendrai Le Suivant…) — Philippe Orreindy, Thomas Gaudin
Inja (Dog) — Steven Pasvolsky, Joe Weatherstone
Johnny Flynton — Lexi Alexander, Alexander Buono

Best Art Direction

See also: Best Art Direction

Winner
Chicago — John Myhre, Gordon Sim
Nominees
Frida — Felipe Fernandez del Paso, Hania Robledo
Gangs of New York — Dante Ferretti, Francesca Lo Schiavo
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers — Grant Major, Dan Hennah, Alan Lee
Road to Perdition — Dennis Gassner, Nancy Haigh

Best Cinematography

See also: Best Cinematography

Winner
Road to Perdition — Conrad L. Hall
Nominees
Chicago — Dion Beebe
Far from Heaven — Edward Lachman
Gangs of New York — Michael Ballhaus
The Pianist — Pawel Edelman

Best Costume Design

See also: Best Costume Design

Winner
Chicago — Colleen Atwood
Nominees
Frida — Julie Weiss
Gangs of New York — Sandy Powell
The Hours — Ann Roth
The Pianist — Anna B. Sheppard

Best Film Editing

See also: Best Film Editing

Winner
Chicago — Martin Walsh
Nominees
Gangs of New York — Thelma Schoonmaker
The Hours — Peter Boyle
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers — Michael Horton
The Pianist — Herve de Luze

Best Foreign Language Film

See also: Best Foreign Language Film

Winner
Nowhere in Africa from Germany — Caroline Link
Nominees
The Crime of Father Amaro from Mexico — Carlos Carrera
Hero from People's Republic of China — Zhang Yimou
The Man without a Past from Finland — Aki Kaurismäki
Zus & Zo from The Netherlands — Paula van der Oest

Best Makeup

See also: Best Makeup

Winner
Frida — John Jackson, Beatrice De Alba
Nominees
The Time Machine — John M. Elliott, Jr., Barbara Lorenz

Best Original Score

See also: Best Original Score

Winner
Frida — Elliot Goldenthal
Nominees
Catch Me If You Can — John Williams
Far from Heaven — Elmer Bernstein
The Hours — Philip Glass
Road to Perdition — Thomas Newman

Best Original Song

See also: Best Original Song

Winner
"Lose Yourself" from 8 Mile — Eminem, Jeff Bass, Luis Resto
Nominees
"Burn it Blue" from Frida — Elliot Goldenthal, Julie Taymor
"Father and Daughter" from The Wild Thornberrys Movie — Paul Simon
"The Hands that Built America" from Gangs of New York — U2
"I Move On" from Chicago — John Kander, Fred Ebb

Best Sound

See also: Best Sound

Winner
Chicago — Michael Minkler, Dominick Tavella, David Lee
Nominees
Gangs of New York — Tom Fleischman, Eugene Gearty, Ivan Sharrock
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers — Christopher Boyes, Michael Semanick, Michael Hedges, Hammond Peek
Road to Perdition — Scott Millan, Bob Beemer, John Pritchett
Spider-Man — Kevin O'Connell, Greg P. Russell, Ed Novick

Best Sound Editing

See also: Best Sound Editing

Winner
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers — Ethan Van der Ryn, Mike Hopkins
Nominees
Minority Report — Richard Hymns, Gary Rydstrom
Road to Perdition — Scott A. Hecker

Best Visual Effects

See also: Best Visual Effects

Winner
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers — Jim Rygiel, Joe Letteri, Randall William Cook, Alex Funke
Nominees
Spider-Man — John Dykstra, Scott Stokdyk, Anthony LaMolinara, John Frazier
Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones — Rob Coleman, Pablo Helman, John Knoll, Ben Snow

Honorary Award

Peter O'Toole "whose remarkable talents have provided cinema history with some of its most memorable characters."
Sours: https://oscars.fandom.com/wiki/75th_Academy_Awards

Wiki oscar awards

Academy Awards

Annual awards for cinematic achievements

"Oscars" and "The Oscar" redirect here. For other uses, see Oscar.

The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars,[1] are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. They are regarded as the most prestigious and significant awards in the entertainment industry worldwide.[2][3] Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements, as assessed by the Academy's voting membership. The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette as a trophy, officially called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more commonly referred to by its nickname, the "Oscar". The statuette depicts a knight rendered in the Art Deco style.

The award was originally sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons.[4] AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in The Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in what would become known as the 1st Academy Awards.[5][6] The Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast by radio in 1930 and was televised for the first time in 1953. It is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and is now televised live worldwide.[7] It is also the oldest of the four major annual American entertainment awards; its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards.[8] A total of 3,140 Oscar statuettes have been awarded since its inception in 1929.[9] They are widely cited as the most prestigious and renowned competitive awards in the field of entertainment.

The 93rd Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2020 and early 2021, was held on April 25, 2021, after it was postponed from its original February 28, 2021, schedule due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cinema. As with the two previous ceremonies, there was no host. The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. It took place at the Dolby Theatre in Los Angeles, California for the 19th consecutive year, along with satellite location taking place at the Union Station also in Los Angeles.[10]

History[edit]

The first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16, 1929, at a private dinner function at The Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people.[11]

The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel.[7] The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5 ($75 at 2020 prices). Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists, directors and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes.

Winners were announced to media three months earlier. That was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards.[7] This method was used until 1940, when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began; as a result, the Academy has, since 1941, used a sealed envelope to reveal the names of the winners.[7]

Milestones[edit]

The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier; this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. At that time, winners were recognized for the entirety of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period; for example, Jannings received the award for two movies in which he starred during that period, and Janet Gaynor later won a single Oscar for performances in three films. With the fourth ceremony, however, the system changed, and professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years.[7]

At the 29th ceremony, held in 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category, now known as Best International Feature Film, was introduced. Until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award.

Perhaps the most widely seen streaker in history was 34-year-old Robert Opel, who streaked across the stage of The Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles flashing a peace sign on national US television at the 46th Academy Awards in 1974. Bemused host David Niven quipped, "Isn't it fascinating to think that probably the only laugh that man will ever get in his life is by stripping off and showing his shortcomings?" Later, evidence arose suggesting that Opel's appearance was facilitated as a publicity stunt by the show's producer Jack Haley Jr. Robert Metzler, the show's business manager, believed that the incident had been planned in some way; during the dress rehearsal Niven had asked Metzler's wife to borrow a pen so he could write down the famous line, which was thus not the ad-lib it appeared to be.[12]

The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature.[13]

From 1973 to 2020, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. For 2021, this tradition was broken as the ceremony ended with the Academy Award for Best Actor.

Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.

Parasite became the first foreign-language film to win Best Picture at the February 9, 2020, award ceremony.[14]

Tom Hanks announced at the 2020 Oscar Ceremony, the opening of the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures on December 14, 2020.[15] The museum development started in 2017 under Kerry Brougher, but is now led by Bill Kramer.[16] The industry curated exhibits will be geared toward the history of motion picture, the art & science of film making, exhibiting trailblazing directors, actors, film makers, sound editors and more, and will house famous artifacts from acclaimed movies like Dorothy's Ruby Red Slippers.

Because of COVID-19, Academy president David Rubin and CEO Dawn Hudson announced that for the 2021 Oscar Ceremony, streaming movies not shown in theaters would be eligible, though at some point the requirement that movies be shown in theaters would return.[17]

Oscar statuette[edit]

Academy Award of Merit (Oscar statuette)[edit]

See also: § Awards of Merit categories

The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette.[9] Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in (34.3 cm) tall, weighs 8.5 lb (3.856 kg), and depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers, and Technicians.[18]

Plaster War-time Oscar plaque (1943), State Central Museum of Cinema, Moscow (ru)

Sculptor George Stanley (who also did the Muse Fountain at the Hollywood Bowl) sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design. The statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years, the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy which is then plated in copper, nickel silver, and finally, 24-karat gold.[9] Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones.[19] The only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base. The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C.W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, Illinois, which also contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015,[20] approximately 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R.S. Owens & Company.[21] It would take between three and four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes.[22] In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry.[23][24] While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are then electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology. The time required to produce 50 such statuettes is roughly three months.[25] R.S. Owens is expected to continue producing other awards for the Academy and service existing Oscars that need replating.[26]

Naming[edit]

The Academy officially adopted the name "Oscar" for the trophies in 1939. However, the origin of the nickname is disputed.[27]

One biography of Bette Davis, who was a president of the Academy in 1941, claims she named the award after her first husband, band leader Harmon Oscar Nelson. A frequently mentioned originator is Margaret Herrick, the Academy executive secretary, who, when she first saw the award in 1931, said the statuette reminded her of "Uncle Oscar", a nickname for her cousin Oscar Pierce.[28]

Columnist Sidney Skolsky, who was present during Herrick's naming in 1931, wrote that "Employees have affectionately dubbed their famous statuette 'Oscar.'"[29] The Academy credits Skolsky with "the first confirmed newspaper reference" to Oscar in his column on March 16, 1934, which was written about that year's 6th Academy Awards.[30] The 1934 awards appeared again in another early media mention of Oscar: a Time magazine story.[31] In the ceremonies that year, Walt Disney was the first to thank the Academy for his "Oscar" during his acceptance speech.[32]

Engraving[edit]

To prevent information identifying the Oscar winners from leaking ahead of the ceremony, Oscar statuettes presented at the ceremony have blank baseplates. Until 2010, winners returned their statuettes to the Academy and had to wait several weeks to have their names inscribed on their respective Oscars. Since 2010, winners have had the option of having engraved nameplates applied to their statuettes at an inscription-processing station at the Governor's Ball, a party held immediately after the Oscar ceremony. The R.S. Owens company has engraved nameplates made before the ceremony, bearing the name of every potential winner. The nameplates for the non-winning nominees are later recycled.[33][34]

Ownership of Oscar statuettes[edit]

Prior to 1950, Oscar statuettes were (and remain) the property of the recipient.[35] Since then the statuettes have been legally encumbered by the requirement that the statuette be first offered for sale back to the Academy for US$1. If a winner refuses to agree to this stipulation, then the Academy keeps the statuette. Academy Awards predating this agreement have been sold in public auctions and private deals for six-figure sums.[36]

In 1989, Michael Todd's grandson tried to sell Todd's Best Picture Oscar for his 1956 production of Around the World in 80 Days to a movie prop collector. The Academy earned enforcement of its statuette contract by gaining a permanent injunction against the sale.

In 1992, Harold Russell consigned his 1946 Oscar for Best Supporting Actor for The Best Years of Our Lives to auction in order to raise money for his wife's medical expenses. Though his decision caused controversy, the first-ever Oscar to be sold passed to a private collector on August 6, 1992 for $60,500 ($111,600 today). Russell defended his action, saying, "I don't know why anybody would be critical. My wife's health is much more important than sentimental reasons. The movie will be here, even if Oscar isn't."[37]

In December 2011, Orson Welles' 1941 Oscar for Citizen Kane (Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay) was put up for auction, after his heirs won a 2004 court decision contending that Welles did not sign any agreement to return the statue to the Academy.[38] On December 20, 2011, it sold in an online auction for US$861,542 ($991,200 today).[39]

Some buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy, which keeps them in its treasury.[36]

Other awards presented by the Academy[edit]

See also: § Special categories

In addition to the Academy Award of Merit (Oscar award), there are nine honorary (non-competitive) awards presented by the Academy from time to time (except for the Academy Honorary Award, the Technical Achievement Award, and the Student Academy Awards, which are presented annually):[40]

The Academy also awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting.

Nomination[edit]

Since 2004, Academy Award nomination results have been announced to the public in mid-January. Prior to that, the results were announced in early February. In 2021, the nominees are announced in March.

Voters[edit]

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), a professional honorary organization, maintains a voting membership of over 7,000 as of 2018[update].[41]

Academy membership is divided into different branches, with each representing a different discipline in film production. Actors constitute the largest voting bloc, numbering 1,311 members (22 percent) of the Academy's composition. Votes have been certified by the auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers (and its predecessor Price Waterhouse) since the 7th Academy Awards in 1935. The firm mails the ballots of eligible nominees to members of the Academy in December to reflect the previous eligible year with a due date sometime in January of the next year, then tabulates the votes in a process that takes thousands of hours.[42][43][44]

All AMPAS members must be invited to join by the Board of Governors, on behalf of Academy Branch Executive Committees. Membership eligibility may be achieved by a competitive nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contributions to the field of motion pictures.

New membership proposals are considered annually. The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership, although as recently as 2007 press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join. The 2007 release also stated that it has just under 6,000 voting members. While the membership had been growing, stricter policies have kept its size steady since then.[45]

In 2012, the results of a study conducted by the Los Angeles Times were published describing the demographic breakdown of approximately 88% of AMPAS' voting membership. Of the 5,100+ active voters confirmed, 94% were Caucasian, 77% were male, and 54% were found to be over the age of 60. 33% of voting members are former nominees (14%) and winners (19%).[46]

In May 2011, the Academy sent a letter advising its 6,000 or so voting members that an online system for Oscar voting would be implemented in 2013.[47]

Rules[edit]

According to Rules 2 and 3 of the official Academy Awards Rules, a film must open in the previous calendar year, from midnight at the start of January 1 to midnight at the end of December 31, in Los Angeles County, California, and play for seven consecutive days, to qualify (except for the Best International Feature Film, Best Documentary Feature, and awards in short film categories). Additionally, the film must be shown at least three times on each day of its qualifying run, with at least one of the daily showings starting between 6 pm and 10 pm local time.[48][49]

For example, the 2009 Best Picture winner, The Hurt Locker, was actually first released in 2008, but did not qualify for the 2008 awards, as it did not play its Oscar-qualifying run in Los Angeles until mid-2009, thus qualifying for the 2009 awards. Foreign films must include English subtitles, and each country can submit only one film for consideration in the International Feature Film category per year.[50]

Rule 2 states that a film must be feature-length, defined as a minimum of 40 minutes, except for short-subject awards, and it must exist either on a 35 mm or 70 mm film print or in 24 frame/s or 48 frame/s progressive scandigital cinema format with a minimum projector resolution of 2048 by 1080 pixels.[51] Since the 90th Academy Awards, presented in 2018, multi-part and limited series have been ineligible for the Best Documentary Feature award. This followed the win of O.J.: Made in America, an eight-hour presentation that was screened in a limited release before being broadcast in five parts on ABC and ESPN, in that category in 2017. The Academy's announcement of the new rule made no direct mention of that film.[52]

The Best International Feature Film award does not require a U.S. release. It requires the film to be submitted as its country's official selection.

The Best Documentary Feature award requires either week-long releases in both Los Angeles County and New York City[a] during the previous calendar year, or a qualifying award at a competitive film festival from the Documentary Feature Qualifying Festival list (regardless of any public exhibition or distribution), or a submission in the International Feature Film category as its country's official selection. The qualifying theatrical runs must meet the same requirements as those for non-documentary films regarding numbers and times of screenings. Additionally, a film must have been reviewed by a critic from The New York Times, Time Out New York, the Los Angeles Times, or LA Weekly.[54]

Producers must submit an Official Screen Credits online form before the deadline; in case it is not submitted by the defined deadline, the film will be ineligible for Academy Awards in any year. The form includes the production credits for all related categories. Then, each form is checked and put in a Reminder List of Eligible Releases.

Awards in short film categories (Best Documentary Short Subject, Best Animated Short Film, and Best Live Action Short Film) have noticeably different eligibility rules from most other competitive awards. First, the qualifying period for release does not coincide with a calendar year, instead covering a one-year period starting on October 1 and ending on September 30 of the calendar year before the ceremony. Second, there are multiple methods of qualification. The main method is a week-long theatrical release in either Los Angeles County or New York City during the eligibility period. Films also can qualify by winning specified awards at one of a number of competitive film festivals designated by the Academy, also without regard to prior public distribution. Finally, a film that is selected as a gold, silver, or bronze medal winner in an appropriate category of the immediately previous Student Academy Awards is also eligible (Documentary category for that award, and Animation, Narrative, Alternative, or International for the other awards). The requirements for the qualifying theatrical run are also different from those for other awards. Only one screening per day is required. For the Documentary award, the screening must start between noon and 10 pm local time; for other awards, no specific start time is required, but the film must appear in regular theater listings with dates and screening times.[54][55] In late December, ballots, and copies of the Reminder List of Eligible Releases are mailed to around 6,000 active members. For most categories, members from each of the branches vote to determine the nominees only in their respective categories (i.e. only directors vote for directors, writers for writers, actors for actors, etc.). In the special case of Best Picture, all voting members are eligible to select the nominees. In all major categories, a variant of the single transferable vote is used, with each member casting a ballot with up to five nominees (ten for Best Picture) ranked preferentially.[56][57][58] In certain categories, including International Feature Film, Documentary and Animated Feature, nominees are selected by special screening committees made up of members from all branches.

In most categories, the winner is selected from among the nominees by plurality voting of all members.[56][58] Since 2009, the Best Picture winner has been chosen by instant runoff voting.[58][59] Since 2013, re-weighted range voting has been used to select the nominees for the Best Visual Effects.[60][61]

Film companies will spend as much as several million dollars on marketing to awards voters for a movie in the running for Best Picture, in attempts to improve chances of receiving Oscars and other movie awards conferred in Oscar season. The Academy enforces rules to limit overt campaigning by its members so as to try to eliminate excesses and prevent the process from becoming undignified. It has an awards czar on staff who advises members on allowed practices and levies penalties on offenders.[62] For example, a producer of the 2009 Best Picture nominee The Hurt Locker was disqualified as a producer in the category when he contacted associates urging them to vote for his film and not another that was seen as the front-runner (The Hurt Locker eventually won).

Awards ceremonies[edit]

See also: List of Academy Awards ceremonies

Telecast[edit]

The major awards are presented at a live televised ceremony, commonly in late February or early March following the relevant calendar year, and six weeks after the announcement of the nominees. It is the culmination of the film awards season, which usually begins during November or December of the previous year. This is an elaborate extravaganza, with the invited guests walking up the red carpet in the creations of the most prominent fashion designers of the day. Black tie dress is the most common outfit for men, although fashion may dictate not wearing a bow-tie, and musical performers sometimes do not adhere to this. (The artists who recorded the nominees for Best Original Song quite often perform those songs live at the awards ceremony, and the fact that they are performing is often used to promote the television broadcast.)

The Academy Awards is the world's longest-running awards show televised live from the U.S. to all time zones in North America and worldwide, and gathers billions of viewers elsewhere throughout the world.[63] The Oscars were first televised in 1953 by NBC, which continued to broadcast the event until 1960, when ABC took over, televising the festivities (including the first color broadcast of the event in 1966) through 1970. NBC regained the rights for five years (1971–75), then ABC resumed broadcast duties in 1976 and its current contract with the Academy runs through 2028.[64] The Academy has also produced condensed versions of the ceremony for broadcast in international markets (especially those outside of the Americas) in more desirable local timeslots. The ceremony was broadcast live internationally for the first time via satellite since 1970, but only two South American countries, Chile and Brazil, purchased the rights to air the broadcast. By that time, the television rights to the Academy Awards had been sold in 50 countries. A decade later, the rights were already being sold to 60 countries, and by 1984, the TV rights to the Awards were licensed in 76 countries.

The ceremonies were moved up from late March/early April to late February, since 2004, to help disrupt and shorten the intense lobbying and ad campaigns associated with Oscar season in the film industry. Another reason was because of the growing TV ratings success coinciding with the NCAA Basketball Tournament, which would cut into the Academy Awards audience. (In 1976 and 1977, ABC's regained Oscars were moved from Tuesday to Monday and went directly opposite NBC's NCAA title game.) The earlier date is also to the advantage of ABC, as it now usually occurs during the highly profitable and important February sweeps period. Some years, the ceremony is moved into the first Sunday of March to avoid a clash with the Winter Olympic Games. Another reason for the move to late February and early March is also to avoid the awards ceremony occurring so close to the religious holidays of Passover and Easter, which for decades had been a grievance from members and the general public.[65] Advertising is somewhat restricted, however, as traditionally no movie studios or competitors of official Academy Award sponsors may advertise during the telecast. The production of the Academy Awards telecast currently holds the distinction of winning the most Emmys in history, with 47 wins and 195 nominations overall since that award's own launch in 1949.[66]

After many years of being held on Mondays at 9:00 pm Eastern/6:00 p.m Pacific, since the 1999 ceremonies, it was moved to Sundays at 8:30 pm ET/5:30 pm PT.[67] The reasons given for the move were that more viewers would tune in on Sundays, that Los Angeles rush-hour traffic jams could be avoided, and an earlier start time would allow viewers on the East Coast to go to bed earlier.[68] For many years the film industry opposed a Sunday broadcast because it would cut into the weekend box office.[69] In 2010, the Academy contemplated moving the ceremony even further back into January, citing TV viewers' fatigue with the film industry's long awards season. However, such an accelerated schedule would dramatically decrease the voting period for its members, to the point where some voters would only have time to view the contending films streamed on their computers (as opposed to traditionally receiving the films and ballots in the mail). Furthermore, a January ceremony on Sunday would clash with National Football League playoff games.[70] In 2018, the Academy announced that the ceremony would be moved from late February to mid February beginning with the 92nd Academy Awards in 2020.[71]

Originally scheduled for April 8, 1968, the 40th Academy Awards ceremony was postponed for two days, because of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.. On March 30, 1981, the 53rd Academy Awards was postponed for one day, after the shooting of President Ronald Reagan and others in Washington, D.C.[72]

In 1993, an In Memoriam segment was introduced,[73] honoring those who had made a significant contribution to cinema who had died in the preceding 12 months, a selection compiled by a small committee of Academy members.[74] This segment has drawn criticism over the years for the omission of some names. Criticism was also levied for many years regarding another aspect, with the segment having a "popularity contest" feel as the audience varied their applause to those who had died by the subject's cultural impact; the applause has since been muted during the telecast, and the audience is discouraged from clapping during the segment and giving silent reflection instead. This segment was later followed by a commercial break.

In terms of broadcast length, the ceremony generally averages three and a half hours. The first Oscars, in 1929, lasted 15 minutes. At the other end of the spectrum, the 2002 ceremony lasted four hours and twenty-three minutes.[75][76] In 2010, the organizers of the Academy Awards announced winners' acceptance speeches must not run past 45 seconds. This, according to organizer Bill Mechanic, was to ensure the elimination of what he termed "the single most hated thing on the show" – overly long and embarrassing displays of emotion.[77] In 2016, in a further effort to streamline speeches, winners' dedications were displayed on an on-screen ticker.[78] During the 2018 ceremony, host Jimmy Kimmel acknowledged how long the ceremony had become, by announcing that he would give a brand-new jet ski to whoever gave the shortest speech of the night (a reward won by Mark Bridges when accepting his Best Costume Design award for Phantom Thread).[79]The Wall Street Journal analyzed the average minutes spent across the 2014–2018 telecasts as follows: 14 on song performances; 25 on the hosts' speeches; 38 on prerecorded clips; and 78 on the awards themselves, broken into 24 on the introduction and announcement, 24 on winners walking to the stage, and 30 on their acceptance speeches.[80]

Although still dominant in ratings, the viewership of the Academy Awards has steadily dropped; the 88th Academy Awards were the lowest-rated in the past eight years (although with increases in male and 18–49 viewership), while the show itself also faced mixed reception. Following the show, Variety reported that ABC was, in negotiating an extension to its contract to broadcast the Oscars, seeking to have more creative control over the broadcast itself. Currently and nominally, AMPAS is responsible for most aspects of the telecast, including the choice of production staff and hosting, although ABC is allowed to have some input on their decisions.[81] In August 2016, AMPAS extended its contract with ABC through 2028: the contract neither contains any notable changes nor gives ABC any further creative control over the telecast.[82]

TV ratings[edit]

Historically, the telecast's viewership is higher when box-office hits are favored to win the Best Picture award. More than 57.25 million viewers tuned to the telecast for the 70th Academy Awards in 1998, the year of Titanic, which generated a box office haul during its initial 1997–98 run of US$600.8 million in the US, a box office record that would remain unsurpassed for years.[83] The 76th Academy Awards ceremony, in which The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (pre-telecast box office earnings of US$368 million) received 11 Awards including Best Picture, drew 43.56 million viewers.[84] The most watched ceremony based on Nielsen ratings to date, however, was the 42nd Academy Awards (Best Picture Midnight Cowboy) which drew a 43.4% household rating on April 7, 1970.[85]

By contrast, ceremonies honoring films that have not performed well at the box office tend to show weaker ratings, despite how much critical acclaim those films have received. The 78th Academy Awards which awarded low-budget independent film Crash (with a pre-Oscar gross of US$53.4 million) generated an audience of 38.64 million with a household rating of 22.91%.[86] In 2008, the 80th Academy Awards telecast was watched by 31.76 million viewers on average with an 18.66% household rating, the lowest-rated and least-watched ceremony at the time, in spite of celebrating 80 years of the Academy Awards.[87] The Best Picture winner of that particular ceremony was another independent film (No Country for Old Men).

Whereas the 92nd Academy Awards drew an average of 23.6 million viewers,[88] the 93rd Academy Awards drew an even lower viewership of 10.4 million.[89] That is the lowest viewership recorded by Nielsen since it started recording audience totals in 1974.[90]

Archive[edit]

The Academy Film Archive holds copies of every Academy Awards ceremony since the 1949 Oscars and material on many prior ceremonies, along with ancillary material related to more recent shows. Copies are held on a variety of film, video, and digital formats.[91]

Venues[edit]

In 1929, the first Academy Awards were presented at a banquet dinner at The Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. From 1930 to 1943, the ceremony alternated between two venues: the Ambassador Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard and the Biltmore Hotel in downtown Los Angeles.

Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood then hosted the awards from 1944 to 1946, followed by the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles from 1947 to 1948. The 21st Academy Awards in 1949 were held at the Academy Award Theatre at what had been the Academy's headquarters on Melrose Avenue in Hollywood.[92]

From 1950 to 1960, the awards were presented at Hollywood's Pantages Theatre. With the advent of television, the awards from 1953 to 1957 took place simultaneously in Hollywood and New York, first at the NBC International Theatre (1953) and then at the NBC Century Theatre, after which the ceremony took place solely in Los Angeles. The Oscars moved to the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California, in 1961. By 1969, the Academy decided to move the ceremonies back to Downtown Los Angeles, this time to the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion at the Los Angeles County Music Center. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the ceremony returned to the Shrine.

In 2002, Hollywood's Dolby Theatre (previously known as the Kodak Theatre) became the presentation's current venue.[93]

Awards of Merit categories[edit]

Current categories[edit]

In the first year of the awards, the Best Directing award was split into two categories (Drama and Comedy). At times, the Best Original Score award has also been split into separate categories (Drama and Comedy/Musical). From the 1930s through the 1960s, the Art Direction (now Production Design), Cinematography, and Costume Design awards were likewise split into two categories (black-and-white films and color films). Prior to 2012, the Production Design award was called Art Direction, while the Makeup and Hairstyling award was called Makeup.

In August 2018, the Academy announced that several categories would not be televised live, but rather be recorded during commercial breaks and aired later in the ceremony.[95] Following dissent from Academy members, they announced that they would indeed air all 24 categories live. This followed a number of proposals (among them, the introduction of a Popular Film category) that the Academy had announced but did not implement.[96]

Discontinued categories[edit]

Proposed categories[edit]

The Board of Governors meets each year and considers new award categories. To date, the following categories have been proposed:

Special categories[edit]

The Special Academy Awards are voted on by special committees, rather than by the Academy membership as a whole. They are not always presented on an annual basis.

Current special categories[edit]

For a list of all nine awards, see § Other awards presented by the Academy.

Discontinued special categories[edit]

Criticism[edit]

Accusations of commercialism[edit]

Due to the positive exposure and prestige of the Academy Awards, many studios spend millions of dollars and hire publicists specifically to promote their films during what is typically called the "Oscar season". This has generated accusations of the Academy Awards being influenced more by marketing than by quality. William Friedkin, an Academy Award-winning film director and former producer of the ceremony, expressed this sentiment at a conference in New York in 2009, describing it as "the greatest promotion scheme that any industry ever devised for itself".[103]

Tim Dirks, editor of AMC'sfilmsite.org, has written of the Academy Awards:

Unfortunately, the critical worth, artistic vision, cultural influence and innovative qualities of many films are not given the same voting weight. Especially since the 1980s, moneymaking "formula-made" blockbusters with glossy production values have often been crowd-pleasing titans (and Best Picture winners), but they haven't necessarily been great films with depth or critical acclaim by any measure.[104]

A recent technique that has been claimed to be used during the Oscar season is the whisper campaign. These campaigns are intended to spread negative perceptions of other movies nominated and are believed to be perpetrated by those that were involved in creating the movie. Examples of whisper campaigns include the allegations against Zero Dark Thirty suggesting that it justifies torture and the claim that Lincoln distorts history.[105]

Accusations of bias[edit]

Further information: Oscar bait

See also: Virtue signaling

Typical criticism of the Academy Awards for Best Picture is that among the winners and nominees there is an over-representation of romantic historical epics, biographical dramas, romantic dramedies and family melodramas, most of which are released in the U.S. in the last three months of the calendar year. The Oscars have been infamously known for selecting specific genres of movies to be awarded. The term "Oscar bait" was coined to describe such movies. This has led, at times, to more specific criticisms that the Academy is disconnected from the audience, e.g., by favoring "Oscar bait" over audience favorites, or favoring historical melodramas over critically acclaimed movies that depict current life issues.[106]

Allegations of a lack of diversity[edit]

The Academy Awards have long received criticism over its lack of diversity among the nominees.[107][108][109] This criticism is based on the statistics from every Academy Awards since 1929, which shows us that only 6.4% of academy award nominees have been non-white and since 1991, 11.2% of nominees have been non-white, with the rate of winners being even more polarizing.[110] Due to a variety of reasons, including marketability and historical bans on interracial couples, a number of high-profile Oscars have been given to yellowface portrayals, as well as performances of Asian characters rewritten for white characters.[111][112] The 88th awards ceremony became the target of a boycott, popularized on social media with the hashtag #OscarsSoWhite, based on critics' perception that its all-white acting nominee list reflected bias. In response, the Academy initiated "historic" changes in membership by the year 2020.[113][114]

Symbolism or sentimentalization[edit]

Acting prizes in certain years have been criticized for not recognizing superior performances so much as being awarded for personal popularity,[115] to make up for a "snub" for a work that proved in time to be more popular or renowned than the one actually awarded, or presented as a "career honor" to recognize a distinguished nominee's entire body of work.[29]

Recognition of streaming media film[edit]

Following the 91st Academy Awards in February 2019 in which the Netflix-broadcast film Roma had been nominated for ten awards including the Best Picture category, Steven Spielberg and other members of the Academy discussed changing the requirements through the Board of Governors for films as to exclude those from Netflix and other media streaming services. Spielberg had been concerned that Netflix as a movie production and distribution studio could spend much more than typical Oscar-winning films and have much wider and earlier distribution than other Best Picture-nominated films, while still being able to meet the minimal theatrical-run status to qualify for an Oscar.[116] The United States Department of Justice, having heard of this potential rule change, wrote a letter to the Academy in March 2019, cautioning them that placing additional restrictions on films that originate from streaming media services without proper justification could raise anti-trust concerns against the Academy.[117] Following its April 2019 board meeting, the Academy Board of Governors agreed to retain the current rules that allow for streaming media films to be eligible for Oscars as long as they enjoy limited theatrical runs.[118]

Refusals of the award[edit]

Some winners critical of the Academy Awards have boycotted the ceremonies and refused to accept their Oscars. The first to do so was screenwriter Dudley Nichols (Best Writing in 1935 for The Informer). Nichols boycotted the 8th Academy Awards ceremony because of conflicts between the Academy and the Writers' Guild.[119] Nichols eventually accepted the 1935 award three years later, at the 1938 ceremony. Nichols was nominated for three further Academy Awards during his career.

George C. Scott became the second person to refuse his award (Best Actor in 1970 for Patton) at the 43rd Academy Awards ceremony. Scott described it as a "meat parade", saying, "I don't want any part of it."[120][121][122]

The third person to refuse the award was Marlon Brando, who refused his award (Best Actor for 1972's The Godfather), citing the film industry's discrimination and mistreatment of Native Americans. At the 45th Academy Awards ceremony, Brando sent actress and civil rights activistSacheen Littlefeather to read a 15-page speech, detailing his criticisms, for which there was booing and cheering by the audience.[123][119]

Disqualifications[edit]

Six films have had nominations revoked before the official award ceremony:[124]

  • The Circus (1928) – The film was voluntarily removed by the Academy from competitive categories, to award Charlie Chaplin a special award.
  • Hondo (1953) – Removed from the Best Story ballot after letters from the producer and nominee questioned its inclusion in the category.
  • High Society (1955) – Withdrawn from screenwriting ballot after being mistaken for the 1956 movie of the same title.
  • The Godfather (1972) – Initially nominated for eleven awards, its nomination for Best Original Score was revoked after it was discovered that its main theme was very similar to music that the score's composer had written for an earlier film. None of its other nominations were revoked, and it received three Oscars, including Best Picture.
  • A Place in the World (1992) – Removed from the Best Foreign Language Film ballot after it was discovered that the country which submitted the film exercised insufficient artistic control.
  • Alone Yet Not Alone (2014) – The film's title song, "Alone Yet Not Alone", was removed from the Best Original Song ballot after Bruce Broughton was found to have improperly contacted other members of the academy's musical branch; this was the first time that a film was removed from a ballot for ethical reasons.

One film was disqualified after winning the award, and had the winner return the Oscar:

  • Young Americans (1969) – Initially won the award for Best Documentary Feature, but was later revoked after it was revealed that it had opened theatrically prior to the eligibility period.

One film had its nomination revoked after the award ceremony, when it had not won the Oscar:

  • Tuba Atlantic (2011) – Its nomination for Best Live Action Short Film was revoked when it was discovered that the film had aired on television in 2010, before its theatrical release.

Gender segregation[edit]

Some advocates of gender equality and non-binary people have criticized the separation of male and female acting categories in the Academy Awards, Emmy Awards and Tony Awards. Though some commentators worry that gender discrimination would cause men to dominate unsegregated categories, other categories are unsegregated. The Grammy Awards went gender-neutral in 2012, while the Daytime Emmy Awards introduced a single Outstanding Younger Performer in a Drama Series category in 2019 to replace their two gender-specific younger actor and actress categories.[125][126]

Associated events[edit]

The following events are closely associated with the annual Academy Awards:

  • BAFTA Awards
  • César Awards
  • Nominees luncheon
  • Governors Awards
  • The 25th Independent Spirit Awards (2010), usually held in Santa Monica, California the Saturday before the Oscars, marked the first time it was moved to a Friday and a change of venue to L.A. Live
  • The annual "Night Before", traditionally held at the Beverly Hills Hotel, begun in 2002 and generally known as the party of the season, benefits the Motion Picture & Television Fund, which operates a retirement home for SAG actors in the San Fernando Valley
  • Elton John AIDS Foundation Academy Award Party airs the awards live at the nearby Pacific Design Center
  • The Governors Ball is the Academy's official after-party, including dinner (until 2011), and is adjacent to the awards-presentation venue
  • The Vanity Fair after-party, historically at the former Morton's restaurant, has been at the Sunset Tower since 2009
  • Ariel Award in Mexico
  • Goya Award in Spain

Presenter and performer gifts[edit]

It has become a tradition to give out gift bags to the presenters and performers at the Oscars. In recent years, these gifts have also been extended to award nominees and winners.[127] The value of each of these gift bags can reach into the tens of thousands of dollars. In 2014, the value was reported to be as high as US$80,000.[128] The value has risen to the point where the U.S. Internal Revenue Service issued a statement regarding the gifts and their taxable status.[129] Oscar gift bags have included vacation packages to Hawaii and Mexico and Japan, a private dinner party for the recipient and friends at a restaurant, videophones, a four-night stay at a hotel, watches, bracelets, spa treatments, bottles of vodka, maple salad dressing, weight-loss gummie candy and up to $25,000 worth of cosmetic treatments and rejuvenation procedures such as lip fillers and chemical peels from New York City facial plastic surgeon Konstantin Vasyukevich.[127][130][131][132][133] Some of the gifts have even had a "risque" element to them; in 2014, the adult products retailer Adam & Eve had a "Secret Room Gifting Suite". Celebrities visiting the gifting suite included Judith Hoag, Carolyn Hennesy, Kate Linder, Chris Mulkey, Jim O'Heir, and John Salley.[134]

Television ratings and advertisement prices[edit]

From 2006 onwards, results are Live+SD; all previous years are live viewing.[135]

Trademark[edit]

[icon]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2016)

The term "Oscar" is a registered trademark of the AMPAS; however, in the Italian language, it is used generically to refer to any award or award ceremony, regardless of which field.[143][144]

See also[edit]

[edit]

  1. ^Starting with the 2017 awards, a qualifying release for the Documentary Feature award can take place anywhere in New York City. Previously, a New York City qualifying run could only take place in Manhattan.[53]

References[edit]

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Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academy_Awards
Every Oscar Winner for Best Actor (1929 - 2020)

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