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Submacular hemorrhage

Felix Y. Chau, MD, Theodore Leng, MD, MS, Francois Laurent, MD, Saurabhdeshmukh, Neelakshi Bhagat, MD, FACS, Jennifer I Lim MD, Iscott

Assigned status Up to Date

 by Neelakshi Bhagat, MD, FACSon June 15, 2021.

05image retinaspecialists wlabel.jpg

Submacular Hemorrhage: Management Options and Literature Review

Bozho Todorich, PhD, Harry W. Flynn, Jr., MD, Ingrid U. Scott, MD, MPH, Rodrigo Jorge, MD, PhD, Cathleen M. McCabe, MD


Abstract: The goal of the following outline is to define subretinal hemorrhage, provide differential diagnosis of its etiology, and provide a comprehensive review on the mechanistic, animal and clinical studies (including case reports, retrospective case series and prospective randomized clinical trials) involving management of submacular hemorrhage. Specifically, the evolution of the submacular surgery (with and without tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)), pneumatic displacement, macular translocation, photodynamic therapy and recently use of anti-VEGF inhibitors is reviewed. In addition, results of group B of submacular surgery trials are reviewed in detail. The document is intended to be an introduction into management of submacular hemorrhage for ophthalmology residents and vitreoretinal fellows, with an emphasis on appreciation of how developments over the years have shaped the current treatment recommendations today. The document will be periodically updated as new studies and evidence become available.

Abbreviations:VH (vitreous hemorrhage).

Definition

Subretinal hemorrhage is an accumulation of blood between the neurosensory retina and the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) arising from the choroidal or retinal circulation.

Etiology

1. Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV): form when the following factors are present:

  1. Angiogenic factors: from diseased or ischemic RPE/ Bruch’s membrane/choriocapillaris complex or RPE rip.
  2. Endothelial cells: from the choriocapillaris
  3. Scaffold for growth: provided by the RPE/Bruch’s membrane complex


VEGF present in CNV may cause opening of capillary fenestrae increasing permeability and risk of bleeding.

Associations:

  • AMD (CNV type 1, under the RPE); (CNV type 2, under the neurosensory retina); (CNV type 3, RAP lesion)
  • POHS (CNV type 2, under the neurosensory retina)
  • High myopia
  • Trauma (choroidal rupture)
  • Angioid streaks
  • Idiopathic
  • Inflammation of the retina/choroid – APMPPE, birdshot, etc.


2. Events during surgical procedures:

  • Drainage of subretinal fluid in scleral buckle procedures
  • Inadvertent scleral perforation (strabismus, SBP, Baerveldt)
  • Associated with localization of melanoma margins during radioactive plaque placement
  • Laser photocoagulation


3. Penetrating ocular trauma:

  • Hemorrhagic retinal detachment
  • Combined suprachoroidal hemorrhage and subretinal hemorrhage


4. Other:

  • Ruptured retinal artery macroaneurysm (also may be sub-ILM)
  • Valsalva (usually sub-ILM)
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Necrotic tumors
  • Optic disc drusen
  • Coagulopathies
  • Central retinal vein occlusion
  • Diabetic retinopathy

Experimental model, animal studies

  • Irreversible photoreceptor damage in merangiotic and holangiotic animal models of subretinal hemorrhage after 1-3 days as a result of:
    1. Stripping of photoreceptor outer segments due to clot contraction
    2. Toxic effect of iron (Fenton-mediated oxidative stress to the photoreceptors with subsequent photoreceptor apoptosis)
    3. Establishment of diffusion barrier between RPE and neurosensory retina (blocks the bidirectional nutrient exchange and trophic relationship between RPE and photoreceptors).

Non-surgical, observational studies

  • Reported visual outcomes in eyes with SMH are variable
  • Factors associated with a poorer visual prognosis may include:
    • Presence of CNV
    • Thicker SRH
    • ARMD etiology
    • Larger hemorrhage
  • Good visual outcome is sometimes possible in select patients with SMH managed without surgical intervention.

Surgical removal of SMH without tPA

  • Early intervention may show trend toward improved post-operative visual outcome
  • Major post-operative events include persistent or recurrent CNV with disciform scarring and PVR with recurrent RD
  • Extraction of SMH may be traumatic when large retinotomies are created and shearing forces during mechanical extraction of the clot.

Animals studies with tPA

  • Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease with fibrin-specific thrombolytic activity that forms a complex with fibrin to activate plasminogen to plasmin which then cleaves fibrin and dissolves the clot.
  • Possible advantages include:
    • decreased fibrin-mediated photoreceptor damage
    • early lysis may allow earlier removal of hemorrhage and shorter duration of toxic and barrier effect of blood on retina.
  • Toxic effect of vehicle in tPA, but apparent safety with doses 25-50 ug
  • Faster clearance of hemorrhage, less photoreceptor damage histopathologically, but scotopic ERG remains decreased in one study
  • Proposed but not proven benefit of intravitreal tPA to hasten clot lysis prior to surgical extraction of hemorrhage
  • Some studies show that Intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator does not diffuse through the intact neural retina to reach a subretinal clot.

Surgical removal of SMH with tPA

  • Advantages may include smaller retinotomy and less traumatic surgery (less trauma by the photoreceptors by dissolving fibrin clot with tPA).
  • Variable VA outcomes with tPA. Poorer outcomes associated with longer duration of hemorrhage, AMD etiology, presence of CNV
  • One study with no difference in outcome with or without tPA (Ibanez)
  • Potential toxic effect of tPA must be kept in mind (safe dose is about 50 ug per injection in humans); toxicity may result in RPE changes and exudative RDs.
  • Maybe of benefit in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

Submacular Surgery Trials

  • Group B: NEI sponsored, randomized clinical trial comparing submacular surgery vs observation for treatment of large submacular hemorrhage secondary to subfoveal CNV related to nAMD.
  • No benefit of submacular surgery for CNV-associated submacular hemorrhage in nAMD patients over observation alone
    • No statistically significant difference in percentage of patients experiencing loss of BCVA in submacular surgery vs. observation arm.
    • No statistically significant difference in percentage of patients experiencing improvement of BCVA in surgery vs. observation arm. 
    • No differences in changes of reading speed or threshold contrast sensitivity in surgery vs. observation arm.
    • Subgroup analysis showed no benefit of use of tPA (used in approximately 38% of cases) over non-tPA surgical evacuation of SMH in the surgery arm.
  • Secondary benefit of prevention of severe vision loss (21% of surgery eyes and 36% of observation eyes had lost more than 6 lines of BCVA from baseline).
  • Complication rate (cataracts, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, proliferative vitreoretinopathy) much higher in surgery arm relative to observation.

Macular translocation

  • PPV followed by circumferential peripheral retinotomy, evacuation of SMH and macular rotation +/- RPE patch grafting.
  • Results are variable with improvement in BCVA observed in patients with severe macular hemorrhage and vision loss.
  • Bruch’s membrane-RPE patch grafts can improve visual outcome in select number of cases.
  • Proliferative vitreoretinopathy, recurrence of choroidal neovascularization, cataracts and recurrent retinal detachment are main complications.

Photodynamic therapy 

  • In a small number of reports PDT successful in treatment of SMH
  • Visual outcomes noted VA improvement or at least stabilization of visual acuity
  • Further studies needed to define efficacy of PDT and its use with IV gas and/or anti-VEGF agents.

Pneumatic displacement:

  • IV injection of expansile gas that requires prone positioning for several hours, followed by face down positioning for 3-4 days.
  • May allow more rapid improvement in VA when used with intravitreal tPA or anti-VEGFs
  • Controversial whether IV tPA can cross into subretinal space through intact retina (tPA does not cross the retina in rabbits after intravitreal injection).
  • Efficacy in improving BCVA with pneumatic displacement in combination with IV tPA and/or anti-VEGFs encouraging; the positioning requirement limits usefulness in older patients.

Use of anti-VEGF agents in SMH

  • Thin and extrafoveal SMH is best treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents alone
  • Growing body of evidence suggests that intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy alone or in combination with pneumatic displacement strategies can preserve and improve visual acuity in patients with SMH due to CNV related to nAMD.
  • The use of anti-VEGF compare favorably to surgical approaches to management of SMH in terms of efficacy, risk, complications and cost.
  • There is a need for prospective randomized clinical studies to definitively establish the long-term efficacy of anti-VEGF therapies in CNV-related submacular hemorrhage in AMD.

Conclusions 

  • Natural history series of submacular hemorrhage show variable visual outcomes, largely dependent on etiology of SMH.
  • SMH related to CNV in nAMD has particularly poor prognosis if untreated, especially if large size and very thick submacular heme.
  • Currently, there appears to be no or at most minimal relative benefit of submacular surgery vs. observation for submacular hemorrhage due to CNV in nAMD, as evidenced by Submacular Surgery Trials Group B.
  • Alternative surgical approaches with macular translocation and RPE patch grafting have mixed outcomes and are yet to be prospectively evaluated.
  • Benefit of adjunctive use of tPA remains uncertain (vitrectomy and pneumatic displacement), although preliminary reports were promising.
  • Adjunctive anti-VEGF agents with pneumatic displacement without vitrectomy shown to be effective in growing number of retrospective reports.
  • In several mainly retrospective studies and one small prospective study with limited number of patients, IV anti-VEGF agents alone have shown promising results in treating submacular hemorrhage from neovascular AMD.
  • Future prospective studies with greater number of patients are needed to help clarify the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapies for treatment of CNV-associated SMH.

Experimental studies in animal model 

1. Glatt & Machemer, AJO, 1982

  • Injected autologous blood beneath retina in merangiotic rabbits
  • Air, BSS, silicone oil controls; also adjacent areas of serous RD.
    • 1 hour: few edematous photoreceptors
    • 1 day: absent or edematous photoreceptors, pyknosis of outer nuclear layer, inner retina normal to cystoid space formation and pyknosis, some completely normal
    • 3 days: onset of karyolysis (thinning of outer nuclear layer), inner retina with cystoid spaces and pyknosis, some areas normal.
    • 7 days: photoreceptors few in number, macrophages with hemosiderin, outer nuclear layer severe karyolysis, inner nuclear layer normal to cystoid spaces and pyknosis.
    • 2 weeks: blood and fibrin gone, macrophages with hemosiderin, outer nuclear layer absent, inner nuclear layer normal to severe karyolysis.
  • Conclusions:
    • Irreversible photoreceptor damage in as little as 24 hours.
    • Non-vascularized retina more severely affected.
    • Retinal changes secondary to:
      1. Toxic effect of iron (hemosiderin)
      2. Barrier effect between retina and RPE (supported by silicone oil control)
      3. Tractional forces by contraction of the clot


2. Toth et al., Arch Ophthalmol., 1991

  • Holangiotic cat model of subretinal hemorrhage (autologous blood)
    • 25 minutes: fibrin in clot forms dense interdigitations with photoreceptor outer segments.
    • 1 hour: sheets of photoreceptor outer and inner segments torn off, overlying retina appears normal.
    • 1 day: retina with only minimal degenerative changes
    • 2-3 days: increased organization of clot, degeneration of torn photoreceptor outer segments, hemosiderin-laden macrophages, intact photoreceptors with vacuolization and degeneration, inner layer minimally affected.
    • 7 days: significant destruction of outer retinal elements, inner layer with increasing vacuolization.
    • 14 days: severe destruction of outer retinal layers, increased number of phagocytic cells
  • BSS and tPA blebs with intact photoreceptor outer segments, no significant morphological changes.

Observational studies

1. Bloome & Ruiz, AJO, 1978

  • 8 patients with massive spontaneous subretinal hemorrhage
  • 1 patient without submacular hemorrhage recovered 20/20 vision
  • Remaining 7 patients with 20/200 (1). HM (3), LP (1), NLP (1), enucleation (1)
  • Conclusion: Recommended conservative management, possible PPV late in course to remove organized blood, early PPV dangerous unless melanoma completely ruled out.


2. Gillies & Lahav, Annals Ophthalmol, 1983

  • 3 cases subretinal hemorrhage
    • myopia, trauma, ARMD/CNVM
  • Initial VA CF, 20/400, CF
  • Final VA 20/40, 20/25, 20/67
  • Conclusion: SRH can clear without intervention with good visual outcome.


3. Nasrallah et al., AJO, 1989

  • 8 patients with atrophic ARMD and subretinal hemorrhage without identifiable CNV
  • Initial VA 20/30 to CF
  • Final VA same
  • None with blood under fovea
  • Conclusion: hemorrhages in areas of atrophy not always associated with CNV, good prognosis for resolution of hemorrhage.


4. Bennett et al., AJO, 1990 (retrospective chart review)

  • 29 patients with large (> 1 DD) submacular hemorrhages, no other cause for decreased vision
  • Initial VA LP to 20/70
  • Final VA LP to 20/30
  • Follow-up of at least 6 months (6-144 months)
  • Conclusion: risk factors for poorer VA outcome:
    • ARMD (n=12)
      • Diseased RPE and retina less tolerant of blood
      • Blood more often located sub-RPE as well as subretinal
      • “thicker” (obvious elevation on stereoscopic viewing)
      • more complete barrier to diffusion
  • Patients with choroidal rupture (n=5) with best final VA (average 20/35)


5. Hayasaka et al., Graefe’s, 1990.

  • 24 eyes with high myopia (> - 8.00 D)
    • 15 without CNVM
      • Blood cleared by 3 months
      • Final VA same or improved in all at 3 months and 1 year
      • 9 with CNVM
      • VA unchanged or worse at 1 year
  • Conclusion: Poorer visual prognosis in patients with CNV.


6. Avery et al, Retina, 1996 (retrospective chart review)

  • 41 eyes from 40 patients with ARMD
  • subfoveal hemorrhage making up > 50% of lesion
  • follow-up at 3 (n=30),6,12,24,36 (n=15) months
  • VA decreased over time (average 3.5 lines at 36 months)
  • However, 33% with improved or stable VA at 36 months
  • Conclusion: VA outcome correlated with initial size (MPS disc areas) and elevation (stereoscopic viewing of color fundus photos; graded none, minimal, moderate, or marked) of hemorrhage. Variable visual acuity outcomes, some patients with stable or improved vision.


7. Berrocal et al., AJO, 1996 (retrospective chart review)

  • 31 eyes with submacular hemorrhage from variety of causes
    • 20 with ARMD etiology
    • 11 with non-ARMD etiology
  • Follow-up 3 months to 6 years (mean 29 months)
  • Thickness and size of lesion not correlated with final VA
  • Conclusion: Poorer VA associated with presence of SRNVM, good visual outcomes possible in eyes without SRNVM.


8. Morse et al., Retina, 1997

  • Retrospecive review of 49 patients with SRH and PDR treated with PPV but no removal of subretinal blood
  • 14 patients with SMH
  • 71% of these with stable or improved VA, 71% with > 5/200 VA
  • Conclusion: SRH resolved spontaneously and did not prevent retinal reattachment. Visual prognosis guarded but may recover ambulatory vision.


9. Scupola et al., Ophthalmologica, 1999.

  • 60 eyes of 54 patients with ARMD and subfoveal hemorrhage > 1 DD
  • Initial VA 20/70 to LP (average. 20/240)
  • Mean F/U 24 months
  • Final VA worse in 80% (20/100-LP)
  • Anatomic outcome: fibrous tissue proliferation (38%), atrophic scar (25%), RPE tear (22%)
  • Conclusion: The visual outcome in eyes with submacular hemorrhages due to AMD is very poor. Poorer visual prognosis correlates with increased size and thickness of the hemorrhage.


10. Uyama et al., Archives of Ophthalmology, 1999.

  • 35 eyes of 32 Japanese patients with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, 6 eyes with submacular hemorrhage 2-3 DD in size
  • On follow-up (average 20 months), serous fluid or blood resolved in all cases
  • Subretinal hemorrhage recurred in 2 patients, one of these resulted in disciform scarring
  • 17 eyes treated with laser photocoagulation, resulting in resorption of hemorrhage and fluid in 12 eyes, 4 eyes lesions increased in size and persisted for prolonged period
  • Outcomes: favorable in 67% overall, improved VA in 71% of eyes treated with laser photocoagulation
  • Conclusions: Visual acuity outcomes better in patients not treated with laser, overall favorable prognosis compared with AMD.


11. McCabe et al., Archives of Ophthalmology, 2000.

  • 41 patients with macular hemorrhage from ruptured retinal artery macroaneurysm managed with observation only
  • Retrospective review from multiple centers
  • Initial VA 20/200 or less in 37 eyes (90.3%), 20/70 in 3 (7.3%), and 20/80 in 1 (2.4%)
  • Final VA 20/40 or better in 15 eyes (37%), between 20/50 and 20/100 in 12 (29%), and 20/200 or less in 14 (34%)
  • Mean F/U 15.7 months
  • Mean time for clearance of SRH was 4.6 months
  • Late macular pigmentary changes observed in 23 eyes (56%) associated with poorer visual outcomes
  • Conclusions: Management with observation alone can result in good visual acuity outcomes.

Surgical treatment of subretinal hemorrhage

1. Dellaporta, AJO, 1983.

  • Drainage of 10-week-old massive traumatic subretinal hemorrhage by endodiathermy needle puncture of retina, choroid, and sclera
  • VA improved from 3/200 to 20/25.


2. Hanscom & Diddie, Arch Ophthalmol, 1987.

  • 2 patients with submacular hemorrhage (ARMD, RAMA)
  • Drained with PPV, retinotomy, clot extraction (1st reported cases)
  • Initial VA CF, HM
  • Final VA 20/400, 20/80
  • Conclusion: Drainage of subretinal hemorrhage may be beneficial.


3. de Juan & Machemer, AJO, 1988

  • 4 eyes with ARMD managed with PPV, drainage +/- irrigation of clot, scar removal
  • Final VA improved in 3 eyes, none better than 5/200
  • Conclusion: Improved visual acuity in ¾, PVR with recurrent RD (2 eyes) secondary to large retinotomies (major complication).


4. Han et al., Arch Ophthalmol, 1990.

  • 19 consecutive cases with traumatic hemorrhagic RD managed with PPV/SBP/FGX +/- internal drainage
  • Anatomic reattachment 68%
  • Final VA > 5/200 in 32%
  • Removal of blood easier after 10 days when clot liquefied
  • 37% needed repeat PPV for PVR, recurrent RD, or subretinal fibrosis
  • Conclusion: Indications for removal of subretinal hemorrhage in traumatic posterior segment injury include: 1) hemorrhagically elevated retinal breaks, 2) massive hemorrhagic RD of posterior pole, 3) bullous detachment of the retina.


5. Wade et al., Arch Ophthalmol, 1990.

  • 14 eyes with submacular hemorrhage managed with PPV and internal drainage
    • 5 eyes with ARMD etiology: all with < 5/200 final VA
    • 9 eyes with non-ARMD etiology: 8 with > 20/400 final VA (5 with recurrent RD, of these, 1 with recurrent RD not reattached).
  • Conclusion: Selected patients can achieve improved VA and anatomic reattachment with this procedure. Results in ARMD poorer and limited by underlying disease process.


6. Vander et al., Ophthalmology, 1991.

  • 11 patients with AMD and massive subretinal hemorrhage, VA < 20/400
  • 6/11 patients with vision loss 4 days to 1 week, 1 for 12 weeks, 4/6 with vision loss for 1 year or more
  • Blood aspirated, clot mechanically extracted, retinotomy enlarged (to 9 mm in one patient)
  • Tamponade with SF6 (8), C3F8 (1), SO (2)
  • Final VA (F/U 3-18 months) improved in 4 (36%) patients [20/400 (1), 20/200 (2)] all with symptoms <1 week, remainder with 20/800 - LP VA
  • 4 (36%) developed RD secondary to PVR, 3 of these underwent re-op with SO
  • Conclusion: Recommended surgical drainage only in desperate cases.


7. Mandelcorn & Menezes, Can J Ophthalmol, 1993.

  • 7 eyes with ARMD
  • PPV/internal drainage
    • 3 patients with removal of CNVM
    • 4 without removal
  • 5 patients with improved VA, none worsened.
  • Conclusion: Best results in those with < 2 week h/o vision loss and those without removal of CNVM.


8. Machemer & Steinhorst, Graefe’s, 1993.

  • 3 cases ARMD with massive recent submacular hemorrhage
  • Managed with PPV, retinotomy, macular translocation
  • Cyclotorsional complaints (excyclotorsion 30 to 60 degrees)
  • Final VA: 20/80, 20/400, 3.5/200
  • Conclusion: Possible new procedure in cases with ARMD and massive hemorrhage.


9. Rubsamen et al., AJO, 1994.

  • 9 patients with massive subretinal hemorrhage from complications of SBP managed with PPV and internal drainage of SRF.
  • Sources of SRH: deep suture (4), drainage of SRF (3), depressor entry into staphyloma (1)
  • Final VA improved in all eyes; VA > 20/80 in 7/9 (78%)
  • Conclusion: Subgroup of patients with massive SMH have good anatomic and visual prognosis with prompt PPV and internal drainage.


10. Ibanez et al., Arch Ophthalmol, 1995.

  • 47 consecutive cases
  • Group 1
    • 23 cases; ARMD (20), POHS (1), angioid streaks (1), idiopathic (1)
    • managed with mechanical clot extraction
    • mean final VA 20/200 for ARMD, 20/70 for non-ARMD
  • Group 2
    • 24 cases; ARMD (19), POHS (2), RAMA (2), angioid streaks (1)
    • tPA-assisted (10-40 ug) drainage
    • Mean final VA 20/480 ARMD, 20/60 non-ARMD
  • Conclusion: No benefit with tPA, patients with ARMD have worse VA outcomes.

Animal studies using tPA

Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) (defined): thrombolytic enzyme, when bound to fibrin markedly increased affinity for plasminogen, converts to plasmin which breaks down fibrin.

1. Johnson et al., Arch Ophthalmol, 1990.

  • Toxicity study of intravitreal tPA in albino rabbit (doses 25, 50, 75, 100ug in 100 ul)
  • BSS control
  • 25 ug: no toxic effects; 50 ug: 1 of 4 eyes with loss of photoreceptors; 75 ug: 3 of 4 eyes with severe retinal damage; 100 ug: all 4 eyes with severe retinal damage.
  • Conclusion: Intravitreal tPA toxicity at doses of 50 ug or greater. Toxicity appears related to vehicle rather than enzyme, as 100 ug of vehicle caused similar damage.


2. Lewis et al., AJO, 1991.

  • Study of subretinal tPA in albino rabbits: toxicity and efficacy in facilitating removal of subretinal hemorrhage
  • Group 1:
    a) 12 eyes with 25 ug/0.1ml
    b) 12 eyes with 50 ug/0.1 ml
    c) 12 eyes with BSS
  • Group 2:
    a) 24 eyes injected with subretinal blood only
    b) 24 eyes subretinal blood followed by tPA 30 minutes later
    c) 24 eyes subretinal blood followed by BSS 30 minutes later
  • Histopathology examined Days 1, 3, and 7
  • Conclusions:
    • No evidence of toxicity Group 1a-c
    • Blood cleared faster in eyes with tPA or BSS than in eyes with blood alone (14, 19 vs. 28.5 d)
    • Progressive degeneration with loss of photoreceptors in the area of subretinal blood in eyes with blood alone, less damage in eyes with tPA or BSS (? Dilutional effect).


3. Benner et al., Arch Ophthalmol, 1991.

  • Study of toxic effect of subretinal tPA on cat retina
  • BSS controls (9)
  • 32 eyes treated with 0.0125 to 10 ug (2.5 to 1000 mg/L) tPA
  • Conclusion: Demonstrated toxic effect on retina of vehicle in human recombinant tPA; toxicity threshold between 1 and 10 ug in the cat.


4. Toth, et al., AJO, 1992.

  • Microsurgical technique for removal of subretinal hemorrhage with the use of tPA in the cat (n=3)
  • 1 to 2 day-old clotted hemorrhage treated with stereotactic micromanipulator with controlled microinfusion of tPA for 60 seconds (total dose 0.5 to 5 ug). After 20 minutes, clot aspirated.
  • 14 days after clearance of blood, histopathology with normal photoreceptor outer segments to few areas with shortening, vacuolization, and distortion.
  • Conclusion: Advances in microsurgical instrumentation and use of subretinal tPA lavage may decrease retinal damage with SRH.


5. Johnson et al., Ophthalmology, 1992.

  • 19 rabbit eyes, 13 cat eyes; model of subretinal hemorrhage
  • 24 hours after subretinal clot induction, animals treated with tPA (50 or 250 ug) in 10 rabbit eyes with vitrectomy 60 or 180 minutes later, or repetitive lavage and aspiration of tPA or BSS during vitrectomy in 9 eyes. Rabbits were sacrificed immediately after vitrectomy.
  • Similar treatment with intra-operative tPA lavage was performed on 7 cat eyes, and 3 eyes were treated with 2.5 ug tPA 10 minutes after subretinal hemorrhage induction. Cats were sacrificed 14 days after treatment.
  • Injection of tPA into the clot had minimal effect at 60 or 180 minutes.
  • Subretinal tPA lavage decreased size of clot but retinotomy size became large secondary to friability of retina overlying clot.
  • Lavage with BSS had no effect.
  • After average 4 injection of tPA with lavage in the cat, small residual clot removed through small retinotomy.
  • 4 cat eyes with severe outer retinal atrophy over clot, 2 with normal appearance -- ? reason for difference.
  • Cat eyes treated with tPA at time of hemorrhage did not form clots, but developed loss of photoreceptors and outer nuclear layer over areas of nonclotted thick blood.
  • Conclusion: tPA-assisted removal of SRH with intra-operative lavage can result in less retinal damage (2 eyes), future improvements in microsurgical instrumentation important. 


6. Coll et al., Retina, 1995.

  • 34 albino rabbits with experimental subretinal hemorrhage
  • 24 eyes with intravitreal tPA (50 ug in 0.1 ml) 1 day later
  • 10 control eyes with intravitreal BSS
  • Clots disappeared within 24 hours with tPA, present at 3 days in control group
  • Scotopic ERG amplitudes markedly reduced for both groups at 7,14, and 14 days
  • Conclusion: tPA results in faster resolution of hemorrhage but does not protect against retinal damage.


7. Benner et al., Ophthalmology, 1994.

  • 23 subretinal hemorrhages formed in cat model using Nd:YAG laser
  • 14 observed, 6 treated with 0.3 to 1.4 ug tPA and aspiration (2-15 retinal punctures required), 3 mechanically removed through retinotomy without tPA
  • 14 days after hemorrhage,12 eyes with SRH 3DD or greater had severe outer retinal atrophy and gliosis over center of clot, 2 eyes with smaller hemorrhage had only minimal changes
  • 14 days after tPA-assisted removal of 7 day-old hemorrhage variable retinal atrophy present, from outer retinal thinning (in 2 eyes) to minimal changes
  • Conclusion: Basal dimension a predictor of retinal damage, less damage to retina with use of tPA.


8. Morse et al., BJO, 1996.

  • tPA treatment of subretinal hemorrhage without removal of blood in the cat model (4 eyes)
  • 0.5-1.0 ug tPA injected into 4 day old hemorrhages, histopathology evaluated at 21 days.
  • 4 days after SRH induction, 0.5-1.0 ug tPA injected into hemorrhage
  • hemorrhage migrated inferiorly in 48 hours
  • 21 days after treatment, severe outer retinal degeneration in initial location of hemorrhage and area migrated to, but not intervening retina
  • 1 small (< 2 DD) SRH with minimal retinal damage
  • Conclusion: Removal of SRH important to prevent damage, small basal diameter of hemorrhage correlates with better prognosis.


9. Boone et al., Retina, 1996.

  • 18 pigs with SRH (holangiotic vasculature and pigmented RPE)
  • 1 day later, treated with intravitreal 0.1 ml BSS (6 eyes) or tPA (25 ug) (12 eyes)
  • Day 2 six eyes treated with tPA underwent removal of SRH with PPV
  • Partial (~25%) liquefaction of blood at time of PPV, all eyes with moderate to severe photoreceptor damage
  • Hemorrhages cleared at same rate in both tPA and BSS treated eyes
  • All eyes (18) with moderate to severe photoreceptor damage by day 10
  • Conclusion: Only partial clot lysis with intravitreal tPA, not sufficient to allow removal of clot with aspiration alone.


10. Kamei et al; Am J. Ophthalmol, 1999.

  • 36 pigs:18 with SRH and 18 controls
  • 18 pigs injected with tPA labeled with fluorescein and rhodamine
  • 18 pigs injected with labeled tPA 2 hours after induction of the subretinal clot
  • Conclusion: Intravitreal tPA did not diffuse trough the intact neural retina to reach the subretinal clot

Surgical removal of SMH without tPA.

Surgical removal of subretinal blood using tPA

1. Peyman et al, Ophthalmic Surgery 1991.

  • 2 patients with RAMA, 3 with AMD and SRH treated with PPV, subretinal tPA (6.25 ug/0.05 mL x 1 or 2), and aspiration of clot through small retinotomy
    • RAMA: CF to 20/50, CF to 20/70 (duration of hemorrhage 3-10d)
    • AMD: CF to 20/400, 20/300 & 20/400 no change (duration of hemorrhage 2-14d)
  • Conclusion: Use of tPA results in smaller retinotomy, less traumatic surgery.


2. Vander, Ophthalmic Surgery, 1992.

  • Case report: 1 patient with large SMH secondary to AMD x 1 week
  • Treated with PPV/subretinal tPA (50 ug/0.2 ml x 3)/ perfluorocarbon/ aspiration of blood and perfluorocarbon in vitreous/ SF6
  • VA 3/200 improved to 20/100 at 4 months post-op
  • Conclusion: Large hemorrhage can be drained through small retinotomy with use of tPA.


3. Kimura et al., (letter), Retina, 1994.

  • 6 patients with moderate-size SRH (2-4 days old) treated with 6 ug/0.1 ml tPA intravitreally 12-36 hours prior to surgery
  • PPV/aspiration +/- perfluorooctane
  • All 6 cases, SRH completely liquefied, no forceps for clot removal required
  • Conclusion: Surgery combined with tPA can mobilize SRH.


4. Lewis, AJO, 1994.

  • 24 eyes with < 14 day-old SMH secondary to AMD treated with PPV/subretinal tPA (12-48 ug in 0.1-0.5 mL)
  • 17 eyes with 70-90% clot liquefied, 7 eyes with < 30% clot liquefied, clot mechanically extracted with forceps
  • results: VA “improved” in 20 eyes (83%): 1 (4%) > 20/40, 6 (25%) 20/50-20/125, 17 (71%) < 20/200
  • RRD in one eye, underwent repeat PPV, 1 macular hole 6 weeks post op, 1 SRH after tPA injected
  • Conclusions: Worse prognosis in eyes with SMH > 7days, extending outside arcades, and with hemorrhagic PED; tPA important adjunct.


5. Millsap et al., Ophthalmic Surgery, 1994.

  • Case report: 2 day-old SRH secondary to AMD treated with PPV/multiple small retinotomies/subretinal tPA (25 ug in 0.1 mL) with suction and backflushing through retinotomies
  • VA HM to CF @ 3 ft.
  • Conclusion: Technically easier removal of hemorrhage rather than through one retinotomy.


6. Laatikainen & Mattila, Acta Ophthalmol Scandin, 1995.

  • Case report: 20 y/o with 14 day-old SMH secondary to traumatic choroidal rupture removed with PPV/subretinal tPA (25 ug)/ repeat PPV with SF6
  • Six months later VA 20/30.
  • Conclusion: PPV with subretinal tPA is a viable surgical option for treatment of SMH due to choroidal rupture.


7. Lim et al., Ophthalmology, 1995.

  • Retrospective review of 18 patients with < 14 day-old SMH > 4 MPS disc areas in size secondary to AMD (16), RAMA (1), penetrating trauma (1) treated with PPV/subretinal tPA (6-12 ug/0.1 ml X 1-3 applications)/ perfluorooctane/BSS lavage; no mechanical clot extraction
  • Results: 6% > 20/40, 0% 20/50-20/100, 94% < 20/200
  • Conclusions: Focused on improvement in VA > 2 lines in 11 (61%), final VA limited by underlying disease.


8. Moriarty et al., Eye, 1995.

  • 15 patients with 2 day to 8 week-old SMH (> 5 DD) secondary to AMD (14) or RAMA (1) treated with PPV/subretinal tPA (25 ug/0.1 ml x 1-2 applications)/aspiration/SF6
  • VA improved in 13 (87%), RRD in 2 (13%)
  • Conclusion: Smaller retinotomy with tPA, need for prospective study.


9. Kamei et al., AJO, 1996.

  • 22 eyes with (5-100 days old) SMH (at least 1 DD centered on fovea) secondary to AMD treated with PPV/subretinal tPA (25 ug/0.1 ml x 0.05 to 0.20 ml)/perfluorocarbon/aspiration/SF6
  • Results: VA improved in 18 (82%); 32% > 20/40, 18% 20/50-20/100, 50% < 20/200
  • 4 eyes with recurrent subretinal hemorrhage, 3 (14%) eyes with RD, 7 eyes with recurrent or persistent CNVM, 3 eyes with ERM
  • Poorer prognosis in eyes with SMH > 30 days, CNVM
  • 9/11 eyes with SMH 8-25 days with VA > 20/200 ~ 6/7 with SMH < 7 days with 20/200 VA
  • Conclusion: Improved VA outcome in patients treated with tPA and perfluorocarbon, less traumatic to retina.


10. Terasaki et al., AJO, 1997.

  • 5 eyes with 3-14 day-old SMH (5-13 DA) secondary to RAMA (3), AMD (1), unknown etiology (1) treated with PPV, subretinal tPA (20 ug/ 0.2 ml x 1-3 applications)/perfluorocarbon/aspiration
  • Measured pre- and post-operative macular ERG
  • Results: ERG recovered somewhat from pre-op value; ERG reduced post-operatively in 4 eyes compared with normal fellow eye, 5th eye with abnormal fellow eye
  • Abnormality consistent with photoreceptor +/- off-center bipolar cells
  • Uncertain cause of decreased ERG (hemorrhage, tPA, or both)
  • Conclusion: significant improvement of ERG response after evacuation of SRH (non-recordable pre-op, and recovered post-op).


11. Hesse et al., Ger J Ophthalmol, 1997.

  • 8 eyes with 2h to 14 day-old SRH (1-6 DD in size) secondary to AMD treated with PPV/6-75 ug subretinal tPA/aspiration/mechanical clot extraction/SF6
  • Only partial clot liquefaction in all eyes, requiring additional mechanical extraction of clot
  • VA improved in 4, stabilized in 3, worsened in1; VA > 20/200 in 4 (50%)
  • Severe RPE loss all patients, RRD in 1 patient
  • Conclusion: No clear benefit with tPA as only partial clot lysis. 


12. Steinhorst et al., Ophthalmologica, 1997.

  • Case report: 12 y/o with 5 day-old traumatic SMH treated with PPV/subretinal tPA (12 ug/0.1 ml)/continuous lavage for 30 minutes/aspiration/SF6
  • Continuous lavage preferable to multiple injections with syringe
  • VA 20/300 improved to 20/30 (10 months after surgery)
  • No additional hemorrhage observed and no fibrovascular proliferation from hemorrhage.
  • Conclusion: PPV with submacular tPA followed by BSS lavage a viable option for SMH due to traumatic choroidal rupture.


13. Humayun et al., AJO, 1998.

  • 9 eyes with < 7day-old SMH (> 3 MPS DA) secondary to a ruptured RAMA treated with PPV/subretinal tPA (12.5-50 ug)/aspiration/SF6 or C3F8
  • Results: 56% > 20/40, 33% 20/50-20/100, 11% < 20/200
  • Conclusions: Improved VA outcomes in recent SMH from RAMA with tPA, prospective randomized study needed.


14. Chaudry et al., Ophthalmic Surg Lasers, 1999.

  • 5 eyes with recent (< 7 days) SMH secondary to AMD > 3 mm thick involving fovea and good (>20/70) prior VA treated with subretinal tPA (25 ug in 0.1 ml) 24 hours prior to PPV/drainage
  • Pre-op VA HM (3) to CF (2)
  • Post-op VA improved in 4/5 (20/400, 20/200, 20/60, 30/30), remained HM in one (had CNV with recurrent hemorrhage), with F/U of 3-24 months
  • Conclusions: Pre-op tPA appears to be safe and may be helpful in clot removal in patients with thick SMH.


15. Shiraga et al. Am J Ophthalmol, 1999.

  • 8 eyes of eight consecutive patients with thick submacular hemorrhage associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy;
  • Visual acuity improved or stabilized in 7 eyes; 4 eyes with VA> 20/40
  • Conclusion: Surgical intervention may be of benefit in eyes with submacular hemorrhage associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.


16. Haupert et al. Am J Ophthalmol, 2001.

  • 11 eyes with SRH related to ARMD
  • PPV, subretinal injection of tPA, fluid gas exchange
  • 8 eyes with improvement in final visual acuity
  • 8 eyes with postoperative VA>20/200
  • SRH recurred in 3 eyes; severe visual loss in 1 eye
  • Conclusion: The efficacy of this treatment is controversial and a prospective clinical trial is necessary to compare it with other proposed treatments.


17. Fine, et al. RETINA, 2010.

  • 13 eyes, retrospective interventional case series, SRH due to nAMD
  • PPV with subretinal tPA (25 ug in 0.1 ml), gas or oil tamponade, greater than 180o retinotomy and cataract extraction in subset of patients.
  • Baseline median BCVA and BCVA at 1 month was HM, but improved with each subsequent f/u visits through 12 months post-op.
  • 9/15 patients required subsequent procedures (hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, glaucoma, cataract and aphakia.
  • Conclusion: Surgical intervention for SMH due to nAMD is associated with very modest improvement in BCVA.

SUBMACULAR SURGERY TRIALS

Submacular Surgery Trial: Group B

For complete references for the submacular surgery trials, refer to the reference list at the end of the document.

The SST Group B was designed to answer the question: Does submacular surgery of patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization with large areas of bleeding secondary to age-related macular degeneration significantly increase the likelihood of vision stabilization or improvement for two years or longer compared to no surgery?

Design: Randomized clinical trial

  • March 1998: NEI agrees to expand to full-scale trial
    • Recruitment initiated July 1998 (n=336); recruitment ended Sept 30, 2001.
    • 168 patients randomized to surgery arm, 168 patients randomized to observation arm.
    • Pilot study patients not included
    • Results of the final outcome published in 2004
  • Primary outcome: stabilization or improvement in visual acuity 2 years after enrollment (specifically either improvement in visual acuity, no change in visual acuity or a decline in visual acuity of no more than 1 line (7 letters) from baseline in the 24 month period)
  • Secondary outcomes: patient perception of quality of life, adverse events, size of area affected by the lesion and treatment.
  • Other outcomes: change in contrast threshold, central assessment of opacification and color changes of the lens of the affected.
  • Patients followed for 4 years or until death.


Eligibility criteria:

  • Age 50 or older.
  • Evidence of AMD with CNV.
  • Blood accounts for > 50% of the lesion so thick that it was limiting the ophthalmologist’s ability to determine whether the blood-occupied area also contained CNV.
  • Blood or CNV (classic or occult) extends through geometric center of FAZ.
  • Size of entire lesion (including blood) > 3.5 MPS disc areas.
  • Size of all CNV (classic or occult CNV), whenever CNV is apparent, < 9 MPS disc areas.
  • > 75% of lesion posterior to equator.
  • In all cases, examining ophthalmologist had to be certain that the subretinal hemorrhage was not from other causes such as macroaneurysm.
  • Study eye visual acuity 20/100 or worse, but LP or better. Visual acuity in the non-study eye had to be LP or better.
  • Previous juxtafoveal or extrafoveal CNV treated with laser was not reason for exclusion in otherwise eligible eyes.
  • Use of ASA, warfarin or other systemic medications was not subject for exclusion.


Exclusion Criteria:

  • NLP in either eye.
  • Previous submacular surgery in study eye.
  • Previous vitrectomy in study eye.
  • Severe NPDR, PDR, DME or other ocular condition that could affect visual acuity and its assessment in either eye.
  • IOP > 30 in either eye.
  • Myopic correction > 8 D in phakic eye, or evidence of retinal abnormalities consistent with pathologic myopia.
  • CE within past month, or capsulotomy within 3 d.
  • Any condition, other than CNV, that could limit visual recovery in the study eye.
  • Contraindication to surgery or anesthesia.
  • Media opacity limiting ability to judge eligibility.
  • Unable to position face-down for 2 days post surgery.
  • Inability to maintain follow-up.
  • Current participation in another AMD study.
  • Inability to undergo FA.
  • Age < 50 for AMD arms, age < 18 for idiopathic and POHS arms.


Recruitment:

  • Patients recruited to study by SST-certified ophthalmologist
  • Only one eye (study eye) was eligible for participation in the trial.
  • Random assignments stratified according to the visual acuity in the study eye (better than 20/200 or 20/200 or worse).
  • Surgery scheduled as soon as possible, but not more than 8 days after enrollment.
  • Baseline visual acuity measurements obtained before randomization, 24 months, at 36 and 48 months.


Surgical Treatment Protocol:

  • Goal: To remove entire CNV lesion (classic and occult component, blood, and scar tissue).
  • Performed only by the SST approved surgeons.
  • Performed within 8 days of randomization.
  • FA within 8 days prior to surgery.
  • Informed consent.
  • Peribulbar, retrobulbar or general anesthesia.
  • Standard 3 port PPV.
  • Detachment of posterior hyaloid at least beyond major vascular arcades and at the retinotomy site.
  • tPA: At the discretion of the surgeon, 10 to 12.5ug of tPA in 0.1 ml may be injected prior to removal of the blood. If a very large clot, more than 0.1 ml may be used. Must wait 40 minutes after tPA for irrigation of liquefied blood. The clot and any associated fibrovascular tissue is mechanically extracted whenever possible based on the judgment of the surgeon. If blood under the RPE, additional 10 to 12.5ug can be used under the RPE and then irrigated 40 minutes after injection. If the mass of blood was to big to remove en- bloc, it was permit for surgeon to cut it into smaller pieces only after reasonable effort was made to remove it as single piece to use for histopathological examination. If more than a thin layer of blood persists, treatment may be repeated.
  • If eye had previous laser treatment, removal of the laser scar with the CNV to be attempted. If removal of laser scar to difficult, CNV was dissected and removed from the interface of the scar.
  • Use of perfluorocarbons permitted at discretion of the surgeon.
  • Endolaser used only if retinotomy was large (ie. more than one disc diameter).
  • Air/fluid exchange.
  • Up to 50% air bubble in phakic patients, 100% bubble in pseudophakic patients. No perfluorocarbon liquids.
  • Patient instructed to keep facedown position overnight and until the air bubble was less than 20%.


Follow-up:

  • Eyes treated with surgery were examined as often as deemed necessary by the attending surgeon.
  • Patients assigned to observation were scheduled for telephone interview regarding vision status and ocular history one month after enrollment.
  • All patients (surgery and observation) had f/u exam for data collection at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after enrollment w/ either 36 month or 48 month f/u.
  • If CNV leakage after enrollment, laser, surgery or photodynamic therapy w/ vaterporfrin for surgery arm and laser and photodynamic therapy for patients in observation arm.
  • Cataract surgery for either arms done when it resulted in loss of more than 2 lines of BCVA as judged by examining ophthalmologist.
  • Adverse events reported to coordinating center.


Surgery variations/deviations:

  • Recombinant tPA injected 38% of eyes, endolaser in 14% eyes, perfluorocarbon in 6% eyes, 15% leaving air bubble >50% and use of gas bubble instead of air bubble 30%.
  • Subretinal or sub-RPE blood remained in 93% of eyes and in 9% significant to elevate the retina.
  • Intra-op complications 22% eyes with retinal tears, 10% with area judged at risk for retinal tear peripherally, 7% with retinal tears at posterior pole and 1% scleral buckle placement. No intraoperative choroidal hemorrhage.


Results:

  • 56 % of surgery eyes vs. 59 % of observation eyes had 2-lines or greater BCVA loss at 24 months f/u.
  • 44% of surgery eyes vs.41% of observation eyes had improvement or stabilization of BCVA (p=0.63, Fisher’s exact).
  • 18% of surgery eyes and 18% of observation eyes had visual acuity improvement of >2 lines since baseline at 24 months.
  • 21% of surgery eyes and 36% of observation eyes had lost more than 6 lines of best corrected visual acuity from baseline (p=0.004, Fisher’s exact).
  • No differences in changes of reading speed in surgery vs. observation arm.
  • 54% vs. 45% surgery vs. observation in change of threshold contrast sensitivity with median improvement of 1 contrast segment in surgery and no change in observation arm (p=0.01, Wilcoxon rank sum test).
  • 44% of eyes initially phakic underwent cataract surgery in surgery arm vs. 6% in the observation arm.
  • 16% of eyes in the surgery arm had rhegmatogenous retinal detachment vs. 2% in the observation arm.

Conclusions:

  • Submacular surgery as performed in SST group B trial did not confer advantage over observation alone with respect to achieving stable or improved BCVA in AMD patients with CNV and associated submacular hemorrhage.
  • Submacular surgery as performed in SST group B trial did result in lesser incidence of severe vision loss (as defined by loss of more than 6 lines of BCVA) compared to observation alone. These findings however, were not accompanied by changes in VT health-related quality of life findings.
  • Submacular surgery as performed in SST group B trial did result in significantly higher rate of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments and necessitated significantly higher rates of cataract surgery.

Macular translocation and RPE transplant surgery

1. Machemer R, Steinhorst UH, Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1993.

  • 3 patients with severe massive SRH related to ARMD
  • PPV followed by subretinal fluid infusion to create RD, followed by circumferential retinotomy.
  • Retina was rotated and fovea relocated with rotations between 30 and 80 degrees.
  • One pt with VA improvement 1/200 to 20/80; other pts developed vitreoproliferative retinopathy.
  • Conclusion: Macular translocation surgery may be an option for severe SRH.

2. Wong D, et al, Br J Ophthalmol. 2004.

  • 29 patients with severe SMH related to nAMD, prospective, non-comparative, interventional study.
  • Phacoemulsification, vitrectomy, 360 degrees retinotomy, excision of choroidal neovascular membrane, and macular relocation using an infusion of 5-fluorouracil and low molecular weight heparin.
  • Preoperative visual acuity (20/120 or worse) and lesion type (predominantly classic or submacular haemorrhage) were significantly associated with visual improvement (coefficient of regression B = 26.8, p<0.001 and B = 14.9 with p = 0.045 respectively).
  • Conclusion: Macular translocation may achieve VA improvement in select cases with submacular hemorrhage.

3. Gibran SK, et al, Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009.

  • 4 patients, retrospective case series, SMH related to nAMD.
  • Patients underwent PPV, induced RD, peripheral temporal retinotomy, removal of SMH and CNV complex. Full thickness chorio-RPE patch was grafted on the site. Silicon oil endotamponade for 12 weeks followed by average 6 month follow-up.
  • SMH removed in all cases; RPE patch graft sufficient to cover macular RPE defect in all cases; at last f/u mean VA improvement 3 +/- 0.9 to 55 +/- 9 ETDRS letters and recovery of central fixation observed in all patients.
  • Conclusion: Surgical evacuation of SMH due to nAMD with RPE patch grafting may be a beneficial option in select group of patients.

4. Ma Z, et al. IOVS, 2009.

  • 21 patients, retrospective case series, SMH related to nAMD.
  • PPV, semicircular temporal peripheral retinotomy, injection of saline into subretinal space, CNV debriedement and evacuation of subretinal blood, RPE-Bruch’s membrane graft performed from mid-peripheral retina followed by silicon oil tamponade.
  • Mean f/u of 20 months. At last f/u mean ETDRS scores increased from 28.65 ± 23.99 before surgery to 47.76 ± 17.22 after surgery.
  • Among 21 eyes, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) occurred in 3 (14.29%), and a recurrent neovascular membrane was observed in one eye (4.76%).
  • Conclusion: Transplantation of the autologous RPE–Bruch’s membrane complex can increase the visual acuity of patients with hemorrhagic AMD.

5. MacLaren RE, et al. Ophthalmology. 2007.

  • 12 patients, interventional prospective cohort study, SMH related to nAMD
  • Submacular removal of CNV through a single retinotomy followed by a full-thickness patch graft of RPE, Bruch's membrane, and choroid harvested from the superior equatorial retina and transplanted into the subfoveal space. Graft flattened with heavy liquid followed by silicone oil exchange.
  • Removal of silicone oil and cataract surgery at 3 months.
  • Successful viable grafts observed in 11/12 patients; The mean visual acuity over the whole cohort fell from logMAR 0.82 to 1.16.
  • Operative complications occurred in 8 patients, including retinal detachment in 5 patients and hemorrhage affecting the graft in 4 patients.
  • Conclusion: RPE transplantation may be effective in restoring vision in nAMD, but operative complications remain high.

6. Tezel, TH, et al, Am. J. Ophthal. 2007.

  • 12 patients, interventional case series, CNV related to nAMD
  • Pts underwent subfoveal membranectomy with transplantation of a sheet of adult human allogeneic RPE cells with mean f/u of 1 year.
  • Eligibility criteria: age >60, BCVA < or =20/63 and subfoveal neovascularization < or =9 disk areas on preoperative fluorescein angiography. All patients on triple immunosuppression post-op.
  • BCVA (P = .085), contrast sensitivity (P = .204), and the reading speed (P = .077) not changed significantly at one year compared with pre- values. Transplants no signs of rejection.
  • Post-op complications: cataract progression requiring surgery (three of eight phakic eyes), retinal detachment (three eyes), intraoperative retinal breaks (two eyes), and macular pucker (two eyes); no CSME observed.
  • Conclusion: Adult human allogeneic RPE transplant into the subretinal space in AMD patients is possible at the time of subfoveal membranectomy. Systemic immune suppression prevents rejection, but does not lead to an improvement in BCVA.

7. Stanga PE, et al. Ophthalmology. 2002.

  • 9 patients, Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series, CNV related to nAMD.
  • Pts underwent surgical excision of the subfoveal CNV with RPE translocation and were observed for 12 to 32 months. Surgery involved standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy, excision of the CNV, and RPE translocation.
  • RPE translocated successfully at the time of CNV removal from the edge of the RPE defect to a subfoveal location in seven of nine patients. One patient experienced proliferative vitreoretinopathy, Confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopy showed autofluorescence of the translocated RPE.
  • Conclusion: RPE translocation from the edge of the lesion at the time of CNV removal has a role in surgical management of nAMD.

8. Binder S, et al. IOVS. 2004.

  • 53 eyes, prospective consecutive case series, CNV related to nAMD.
  • Pts with fCNV who were not eligible for laser or photodynamic therapy underwent subretinal membrane excision with simultaneous transplantation of autologous RPE cells.
  • Grp 1—pts underwent subfoveal membranectomy and RPE transplantation. Grp 2—pts underwent subfoveal membranectomy alone.
  • In Grp 1, the BCVA improved by at least two lines in 53.8% of patients, compared to 21.1% pts in Grp 2. Reading acuity was significantly higher in Grp 1 related to Grp 2. mfERG response density changes were significantly different between groups 1 and 2.
  • Conclusion: Pts undergoing fCNV removal with autologous transplantation of RPE achieved significantly better reading acuity and higher mfERG-response density than control pts. Autologous RPE transplantation should be considered in pts undergoing fCNV excision.

Photodynamic therapy

1. Rouvas, et al. Retina. 2010.

  • 30 eyes of 30 patients, retrospective comparative study, SMH related to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.
  • Patients either received 1 session of PDT or 3 monthly intravitreal injections of 0.5 mg ranibizumab or 1 session of PDT and 3 injections of 0.5 mg ranibizumab.
  • Retreatment in each group done in case of leaking polyps on the indocyanine green angiography or persistence or recurrence of subretinal fluid, intraretinal fluid, and/or hemorrhages.
  • BCVA improvement noted in PDT alone group, whereas VA stabilized in RZB alone or PDT plus RZB groups.
  • 45.45% of the patients treated with PDT alone gained more than 3 lines, whereas no patient in RZB alone or PDT plus RZB groups.
  • Conclusion: PDT resulted in a significantly better outcome at the end of the follow-up, whereas pts receiving RZB or PDT plus RZB had stabilization of the disease.


2. Ahmad, S, et al. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008.

  • 21 patients with nAMD with predominately hemorrhagic CNV.
  • Mean pretreatment VA was 20/210, and mean SRH size was 16 disk areas.
  • All patients treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT)
  • Thirteen (62%) of 21 eyes exhibited stable or improved VA; SRH resolved in 18 eyes (86%) after a mean of six months.
  • VA one year after PDT inversely correlated with patient age (P = .045) and initial SRH size (P = .04) and positively correlated with pretreatment VA (P = .01).
  • Conclusion: PDT may be effective for SMH related to nAMD in select group of patients; further studies needed to clarify efficacy of PDT compared to other treatment approaches.


3. Chan, et al, Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 2005.

  • Six eyes of six patients, prospective, non-comparative, interventional case series; thick SMH secondary to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. which was displaced pneumatically with intravitreal pure 0.4 ml C(3)F(8) and subsequently with PDT for any persistent active leaking polypoidal lesions
  • The mean improvement in logMAR BCVA after the sequential treatments was seven lines (range +3 to +19 lines) All patients had at least moderate visual gains.
  • No patient suffered serious complications from PDT.
  • Conclusion: Intravitreal gas injection and sequential PDT for PCV seems to be a well-tolerated option; further studies needed.

Pneumatic Displacement

1. Heriot, Pre-AAO meeting, Chicago, IL, 1996.

  • 10 patients with SMH secondary to AMD (8), RAMA (2)
  • Treated with 100ug/0.1ml intravitreal tPA
  • 0.3 ml C3F8 gas bubble, face down positioning to displace blood from fovea.
  • Displacement of blood from fovea.
  • Final VA not reported for all cases.
  • Complications: RRD in 1 of 16 patients treated this way.
  • Conclusion: Treatment with intravitreal tPA and pneumatic displacement may result in better VA.


2. Ohji et al., Arch Ophthalmol, 1998.

  • 5 patients with SMH secondary to AMD (4), RAMA (1)
  • Treated with 0.4-0.5 ml pure perfluoropropane gas bubble, face down positioning to displace hemorrhage from fovea.
  • No TPA used
  • 3 patients with dramatic displacement of blood, 2 with thinning
  • Final VA 20/15 to 20/200; > 20/50 in 3 eyes
  • Complications VH (1), RD (1)
  • Conclusion: Gas bubble displaces blood from macula without TPA, may have improved VA.


3. Hassan et al., Ophthalmology, 1999.

  • 15 patients with acute (< 3 wk) thick SMH secondary to ARMD (13), RAMA (1), trauma (1) treated with intravitreal tPA (25-100 ug/ 0.1-0.2 ml) and gas tamponade (C3F8 or SF6) with face-down positioning for 1-5 days.
  • All had complete displacement of blood from fovea
  • Post-op VA improved by > 2 lines in 14 (93%), final VA improved in 10 (67%) and was > 20/80 in 40%
  • Complications: VH in 3, endophthalmitis in 1, recurrent SRH in 4
  • Conclusion: This technique effective in displacing SRH and improving VA in most patients, final VA limited by progression of underlying disease.


4. Handwerger et al., Arch Ophthalmol, 2001.

  • 14 patients, retrospective, SRH secondary to ARMD
  • SRH was completely displaced from the fovea in 10 patients
  • 8 patients with improvement of 2 lines in postoperative VA (57%)
  • Conclusion: Safe and effective in displacing submacular hemorrhage.


5. Holland D, et al, Ophthalmologica, 2004.

  • 2 patients, case report, SMH due to traumatic choroidal rupture
  • IV injection of 0.4 ml of sulfur hexafluoride; in 1 patient gas injection combined with 50 mcg of rtPA.
  • Vision improved from 20/125 and 20/100 to 20/32 in both eyes.
  • Conclusion: IV r-TPA and gas efficient therapy for patients with SMH due to choroidal rupture.


6. Wu TT, et al, J. Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2005.

  • 6 patients, retrospective case series, SMH related to retinal arterial macroaneurysm
  • IV tPA 50 mcg/0.1 ml injected through pars plana into vitreous cavity with 0.3-0.5 ml perfluoropropane gas following the tPA injection.
  • Post-op visual acuity improved in 83% of eyes and unchanged in 17 % of eyes; in 83% of eyes SMH was either completely or partially displaced.
  • Conclusion: IV tPA and gas followed by prone positioning is effective treatment for SMH due to retinal arterial aneurysm.


7. Yang PM, et al Chang Gung Med J. 2005.

  • 24 patients, retrospective case series, dense SMH
  • Pts w/ SMH treated with IV expansile gas with or without IV tPA injection to displace submacular blood.
  • Total or partial blood displacement achieved in all eyes. With mean f/u of 15.5 months, final VA improved by 2 or more lines in 45.8% of patients and measured 20/100 or better in 41.7% of eyes.
  • Conclusion: Pneumatic displacement, with or without IV tPA useful in displacing dense SMH and facilitating visual improvement, although the visual outcome often limited by the progression of the underlying macular disease.


8. Gopalakrishan M, Retina 2007.

  • 20 patients, prospective, consecutive, single-center, noncomparative, interventional case series, SMH due to various etiologies.
  • Pts tx w/ IV perfluoropropane followed by prone position for 5 days to 7 days. Pts f/u 1d, 7d, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year.
  • Submacular blood completely or partially displaced from fovea in 16/20 eyes within 7 days of IV injection.
  • Mean BCVA improved from 1.6 to 0.72 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution; Final visual acuity was 20/63 or better in 10 eyes (50%); four pts developed non-resolving VH, rx. by PPV.
  • Conclusion: IV perfluoropropane gas is effective at pneumatic resolution of SMH without tPA.


9. Ron Y, Ophthalmologica. 2007.

  • 24 patients, retrospective chart review, SMH secondary to AMD
  • IV injections of perfluoropropane gas (11 patients) or sulfurhexafluoride (13 patients) reviewed for VA at baseline and after IV injection.
  • Overall improvement in VA statistically significant for SF(6) group (p=0.034), but not for C(3)F(8) group (p=0.245).
  • Conclusion: Use of gas for pneumatic displacement of SMH can improve VA.


10. Fang IM, Eye, 2009.

  • 53 eyes from 53 patients, retrospective chart review, thick subfoveal hemorrhage due to nAMD.
  • 0.84+/-0.03 (n=112); at 3 months was 0.69+/-0.05 (P<0.0001, n=84); at 6 months was 0.74+/-0.06 (P<0.05, n=51); and at 9 months was 0.69+/-0.08 (n=29, P=0.09).
  • 28 eyes received IV t-PA and gas injection and 25 eyes received IV gas injection alone. BCVA outcome compared between t-PA+gas vs. gas alone.
  • Best post-op visual acuity improvement significantly higher in the t-PA + gas group than in the gas-alone (60.7 vs 32.0%; P=0.037); difference significant only in eyes with hemorrhage duration >14 days (46.2 vs 8.3%; P=0.035). Incidence of final visual acuity improvement was not significantly different between the two groups (42.9 vs 28.0%; P=0.39).
  • Complications of vitreous hemorrhage and endophthalmitis were the same between the two groups.
  • Conclusions: IV t-PA valuable only in eyes with old hemorrhage; for recent onset hemorrhage, tPA recommended only if IV gas failed to displace SMH.


11. Nourinia R et al. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2010

  • Intravitreal expansile gas injection + rtPA vs Intravitreal expansil gas alone followed by intravitreal Bevacizumab injection for treatment of SMH secondary to AMD.
  • 5 eyes of 5 patients. 3 eyes with gas (0.3 ml pure SF6) vs 2 eyes with pure SF6 + 50 µg/0.05ml) rtPA. Face-down positionning. After 24 hours: 1.25 mg/0.05ml Bevacizumab intravitreous injection.
  • duration of symptoms (mean 6.4+3.2 , range 3-10) days. Mean number of Bevacizumab injection:1.8 (range 1-3). BCVA improved significantly at 12 months. SMH displacement in all eyes.
  • Conclusion Expansible SF6 with or without rtPA followed by bevacizumab injections seems to result in improved BCVA in SMH secondary to AMD.


13. Kitahashi M,Clin Ophthalmol. 2014

  • Pneumatic displacement (PD) + IVT bevacizumab (IVB) vs pneumatic displacement alone for massive submacular hemorraghe (SMH) in polyoidal choroidal vasculopathy(PCV).
  • 32 eyes from 32 patients. 22 eyes in the PD+IVB 1.25mg group and 10 eyes in the PD alone group.
  • Complete displacement from under the fovea: 86.4% in the PD+IVB group vs 50% in the PD alone group.
  • Best Corrected VA at 0, 3, 6 months significantly better in PD+IVB group.
  • Improvement in Best Corrected VA >0.3logMAR in 81.8% for PD+IVB group and 20% in PD group.
  • Fewer additionnal treatment in PD+IVB group vs PD alone group. Significant.
  • Better procedure for massive SMH due to PCV

Treatement of SMH by pneumatic displacement + rtPA with or without Anti-VEGF

1. Chang W, Am J Ophthalmol. 2014

101 eyes of 101 patients with AMD and SMH. PPV +gas + AntiVEGF vs PPV+gas alone. Greater visual acuity improvement in the group with anti-VEGF at 6 months.

Complication: Vitreous haemorrhage (2 eyes). rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (4 eyes), recurrent hemorrhage (6 eyes).

Conclusions: PPV+Gas+rtPA effective for retinal displacement. There is a loss of acuity over time. Anti-VEGF injection help maintain visual acuity.

Anti-VEGF Agents in treatment of SMH with or without pneumatic displacement

1. Olmos, et al. Ophthalmology Management. 2010.

  • 4 patients, retrospective case series, SRH related to nAMD.
  • Patients treated with serial intravitreal injections of ranibizumab.
  • SRH hemorrhage resolved over the course of 4 to 8 months.
  • Baseline BCVA was 20/60 or worse (20/60 to 20/400), final BCVA between 20/25 and 20/40.
  • Conclusion: SMH of varying size and thickness can be successfully treated with intravitreal lucentis monotherapy.


2. Chang, et al. Retina. 2010.

  • 7 patients, prospective one year case series, SRH secondary to nAMD.
  • SRHs due to CNV treated w/ IV injections of ranibizumab (RZB) at baseline, 1 month and 2 months. Subsequent monthly injections through month 11 given at the discretion of attending ophthalmologist with maximal 12 injections given.
  • At 12 months median visual acuity was 20/250 with median change in +7 letters; 3/7 pts improved more than 2 lines of vision and no patient lost more than 2 lines. Median change in subfield thickness in OCT from baseline was -109 microns.
  • No ocular or systemic adverse effects observed.
  • Conclusion: Hemorrhagic CNV in nAMD treated with IV injections of RZB alone have better VA outcome than natural history of controls in SST trials.


3. Sandhu, et al, Clin Ophthalmol. 2010.

  • 16 patients, retrospective, SRH secondary to neovascular AMD (nAMD).
  • SRH treated by 25G vitrectomy, submacular tPA injection (12.5 ug/o.1 mL), pneumatic displacement with fluid air exchange followed by post-op IV ranibizumab (RZB)
  • 68.7% patients with complete displacement of SMH.
  • All pts had improvement of at least 1 line VA at 6 months; with 63% of patients improving by more than two lines and 83% of patients treated with RZB improving by 83%.
  • Conclusion: Vitrectomy/tPA/pneumatic displacement of SRH followed by RZB injection can stabilize/improve vision in patients with nAMD.


4. Ferraz, et al, Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2010.

  • 5 study eyes, retrospective case series, SRH secondary to AMD.
  • SRH treated with concurrent intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and C3F8 followed by prone positioning of patients.
  • The full displacement achieved in 4/5 patients.
  • Mean pre-op VA 1.12 +/- 0.34 logMAR and the mean postoperative VA was 0.92 +/- 0.4 logMAR.
  • No post-op complications of retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, vitreous hemorrhage, uveitis, cataracts and increased intraocular pressure during f/u.
  • Conclusion: IV bevacizumab and C3F8 may be a viable strategy for tx. SMH in AMD pts.


5. Matt, et al, Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2010 (German).

  • 10 study eyes, retrospective clinical study, SRH secondary to nAMD.
  • Extensive subfoveal hemorrhages treated with IV rtPA (0.05 mL; 0.025 mg/0.1 mL in 0.9% NaCl), 100% sulphur hexafluoride (SF(6)) gas (0.5 mL) and lucentis (0.05 mL, 10 mg/mL) within two weeks after the onset of the subretinal hemorrhage. Re-injections with lucentis done q 4 week if persistent subfoveal hemorrhage or CNV.
  • After 3-13 months of f/u, VA increased in 7/10, stable in 1/10 and decreased 2/10 patients.
  • Complications CRAO (1/10 pts), corneal erosion (1/10 pts) and increased IOP (1/10).
  • Conclusion: Combination of rtPA, gas and lucentis effective therapy for extensive subfoveal hemorrhage in nAMD.


6. Arias, et al., Clinical Ophthalmol. 2010.

  • 15 study eyes, retrospective consecutive case series, SRH due to nAMD
  • Acute hemorrhagic nAMD presenting with central scotoma and/or VA loss treated with 25- or 23-gauge TSV, subretinal or intravitreal tPA, fluid-air-SF6 exchange and intravitreal injection of bevacizumab
  • Successful displacement of SMH in all cases. Average age close to 80, baseline average VA of 20/640 increased to 20/250. Complications: VH, RPE tear.
  • Conclusion: Surgical approach with 25- or 23-gauge TSV, subretinal or intravitreal tPA, fluid-air-SF6 exchange and intravitreal injection of bevacizumab is safe and effective for early treatment of hemorrhagic AMD.


7. Auriol, et al, J. Fr. Ophthalmol. 2010.

  • 18 study eyes in 16 patients, retrospective clinical case series, SRH due to nAMD.
  • Thick SMH treated with vitrectomy, subretinal injection of rtPA (0.5mg), and fluid-gas exchange.
  • Thick SRH displaced in all cases, CNV causing bleed identified in 10/18 eyes, all of which received adjuvant photodynamic therapy or intravitreal injections. Complications- one case of RD and one case of hyphema.
  • Conclusion: Submacular surgery with adjuvant interventions useful in treatment of thick SMH.


8. Treumer, et al, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2009.

  • 12 patients, retrospective case series, SMH in nAMD.
  • All patients underwent PPV with subretinal co-application of rtPA and bevacizumab, and fluid-gas (20% SF6) exchange. All phakic pts underwent cataract surgery; additional IV injections of bevacizumab at 4 and 8 weeks post-op.
  • Complete SMH displacement in 9/12 pts. BCVA improved from baseline logMAR 1.9 to logMAR 1.2 (4 weeks) and logMAR 0.9 (12 weeks post-op). Improvement observed in 10 pts, stable VA in one and decreased VA in one patient.
  • Conclusion: PPV with co-application of tPA and bevacizumab with fluid gas exchange effectively displaces SMH and improves VA.


9. Höhn F, et al. Ophthalmologe, 2010.

  • 10 patients, retrospective case series, subfoveal hemorrhage in nAMD.
  • Pts received IV injections of 1.25 mg bevacizumab and 0.3 ml SF(6) with a 4 week f/u at which additional anti-VEGF IV injections were performed.
  • Displacement of SFH in 80%; VA improved by 3 or more lines in 60% of pts, remained stable in 30% of pts and worsened in 10% of pts.
  • Conclusion: Combined IV injections of bevacizumab and SF(6) have potential efficacy to improve VA in patients with SRH due to nAMD.


10. Shah, SP. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2009.

  • Two patients, case report, massive SMH due to nAMD.
  • Pts underwent combination PPV, submacular anti-VEGF and r-TPA injection with pneumatic displacement of the hemorrhage. VA at 7 and 8 month post-op visits were 20/80 and 20/70(-1), respectively.
  • Conclusion: PPV with submacular anti-VEGF and r-TPA injection with pneumatic displacement viable option for tx SMH.


11. Chawla, Ind. J. Ophthalmol. 2009.

  • Four patients, case report, SMH due to choroidal neovascular membrane (? Due to AMD)
  • 4 patients underwent IV injection of 0.05 ml bevacizumab w/ 0.5 ml of SF6 for pneumatic displacement.
  • Complete or partial displacement of SMH observed in all 4 cases

In three patients, VA improved at 3 months to (20/120, 20/40 and 20/60; one patient lost to follow-up).

  • Conclusion: Pneumatic displacement with IV bevacizumab effective for treatment of SMH.


12. Stifter E. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2007.

  • 21 eyes of 19 patients, retrospective clinical study, nAMD.
  • Patients with SMH involving fovea and more than 50% of the lesion injected with IV bevacizumab.
  • At 4 months, VA stable or improved in 100% of patients, and in 9.5% improved by at least 3 lines. Similar results at 12 months f/u.
  • Significant improvements in central foveal thickness, maximum retinal thickness, minimum retinal thickness and foveal volume with mean size of hemorrhage significantly decreased.
  • Conclusion: IV bevacizumab good option for patients w/ nAMD and large SMH with good anatomic and VA outcomes.


13. Cleary CA, et al. Eye. 2008.

  • 112 eyes of 111 patients, Interventional consecutive retrospective case series, CNV membranes, PEDs, and SMHs related to nAMD.
  • Pts received IV bevacizumab w/ f/u including VA, ophthalmic exams, OCT and FA. Repeat injections for persistent leakage and retinal edema.
  • Mean f/u of 5 months with VA of 0.84+/-0.03 (n=112) at baseline; 0.69+/-0.05 (P<0.0001, n=84) at 3 months; 0.74+/-0.06 (P<0.05, n=51) at 6 months; 0.69+/-0.08 (n=29, P=0.09) at 9 months. Only 17 patients received single injection, and 13/17 maintained or improved VA at 6 months. There was steady decrease in mean foveal thickness from baseline through 6 months f/u
  • Conclusion: IV bevacizumab is effective treatment for nAMD.

14. Meyer CH, et al, Acta Ophthalmol. 2008.

  • 19 patients, retrospective pilot study, SRH related to nAMD.
  • Each patient underwent triple procedure with intravitreal injection 0.05 ml rtPA (50 microg), 0.3 ml of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas and 0.05 ml bevacizumab.
  • Lesion size, SRH location and ETDRS visual acuity at baseline, 1 and 3 months after the injection.
  • Baseline VA of 20/133 improved to 20/86 at 1 month and to 20/74 at 3 months. Successful inferior displacement of the SRH in 17/19 pts.
  • Conclusion: IV rtPA, gas and bevacizumab appears to be beneficial and well tolerated in the treatment of SRH in the short term.

Tables.jpg

References: Submacular Surgery Trials Reports

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  3. Submacular Surgery Trials Research Group, Solomon SD, Jefferys JL, Hawkins BS, Bressler NM. Incident choroidal neovascularization in fellow eyes of patients with unilateral subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration: SST report No. 20 from the Submacular Surgery Trials Research Group. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 Oct;125(10):1323-30.
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Sours: https://eyewiki.aao.org/Management_of_Submacular_Hemorrhage

United States, World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942 Digital Folder Number List

DGSGSStateTitleSEQFilm Note 4119610TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942316Draft registration cards, Whitehead, Luther - Wiede, Ed, 1942 4119699TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942317Draft registration cards, Wiede, Edwin - Wilkins, Berry Oliver, 1942 4119740TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942318Draft registration cards, Wilkins, Charles - Williiams, David Winfield, 1942 4119749TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942319Draft registration cards, Williams, Davis - Williams, Marvin Leonard, 1942 4119755TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942320Draft registration cards, Williams, Mason Fred - Williamson, Clark, 1942 41209792240779IndianaIndiana Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration48DeFries, Garret - Denzine, William Luie 41210022240780IndianaIndiana Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration49Denzine, William Luie - Dickson, John Graham 4123822TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942326Draft registration cards, Woods, Boliver - Wortham, Roger Mill, 1942 4123887TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942321Draft registration cards, Williamson, Claud Franklin - Wilson, Cloe Clayton, 1942 4123970TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942322Draft registration cards, Wilson, Clyde - Wilson, Samuel Willis, 1942 4123988TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942323Draft registration cards, Wilson, Saul Iola - Winters, Jesse Frank, 1942 4123998TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942324Draft registration cards, Winters, John Adolf - Womack, Delbert, 1942 4124024TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942325Draft registration cards, Womack, Dewitt Lea - Woods, Bob, 1942 4124789TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942327Draft registration cards, Wortham, Romalis - Wright, Willard Ossie, 1942 4125031TexasTexas draft registration cards : 1942328Draft registration cards, Wright, William - Yawn, James Robert, 1942 41251612240822IndianaIndiana Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration59Ervin, John William - Ewing, Walter 41251652281078IndianaIndiana Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration60Ewing, Will - Fauser, Earl M. 41251932281079IndianaIndiana Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration61Fauser, Earl M. - Ferrell, Floyd 41252242281080IndianaIndiana Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration62Ferrell, Floyd - Fish, Clyde Monroe 41260912281933New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration1Aa, Isaac - Adfield, Elza 41260922283145New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration2Adishian, Mesrob Hachadour - Aldo, Max (first card filmed out of order). 41260932283227New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration3Aldon, Jan - Alvarez, Jose Alvarez 41260942283228New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration4Alvarez, Jose Coalla - Antonello, Charles Angelo 41261032283229New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration5Antonello, Joseph - Asterion, Aster 41261042283230New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration6Asteriou, George - Baker, Charles A. 41261052283272New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration7Baker, Charles Albert - Baron, Milton 41261062283273New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration8Baron, Morris - Beach, Chester 41261162283330New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration12Blakeslee, Charles G. - Blum, W. Robert 41261172283378New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration13Blum, William - Borracci, Joseph 41261182283379New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration14Borrack, Joseph - Brayshaw, Elmore Albert 41262032283274New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration9Beach, Chester Arthur - Benemio, Michael 41262042283329New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration11Bernstein, David - Blakemore, Leonard 41262052283649New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration10Benenati, Nicholas - Bernstein, David 41262062283380New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration15Braz, Antonio - Brown, Jason 41262072283381New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration16Brown, Jawyman - Burke, Alfred Woodward 41262082283441New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration17Burke, Andrew - Calender, George Herbert 41262092283442New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration18Calender, Charles - Carapetis, Apostolos 41262102283443New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration19Caras, Cleon - Cassidy, Edward Aloysuis 41262112283444New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration20Cassidy, Edward Holden - Cherrnay, Hyman 41262322283519New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration21Cherry, Arthur - Clark, Enoch H. 41262332283520New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration22Clark, Ernest - Cohn, Joseph Lewi 41262422283521New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration23Cohn, Julius - Conway, Matthew 41262482283556New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration24Conway, Maurice - Crotty, William Thomas 41262492283557New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration25Crouch, Frank M. - Da Mato, Anthony J. 41262502283599New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration26Damato, Ciro - Debono, Charles 41262512283600New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration27Debono, Joe - DeRavinier, Emanis C. 41262522283601New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration28Denba, Angelo - Dimatto, Mike 41262532283602New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration29Dimauro, Antonio - Dorfman, Emil 41262542283650New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration30Dorfman, Fred A. - Dulgres, John Costas 41262552283651New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration31Dulik, John Stanislaus - Ehrlich, William 41262562283652New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration32Ehrman, Albert - Escoube, Gaston 41262572283701New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration33Escudero, Francisco - Fast, Herman M. 41262582283702New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration34Favorite, Frederick D. - Fielbig, Christian 41262592283703New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration35Field, Andrew Joseph - Fleming, Samuel Benjamin 41262862283759New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration36Fleming, Selwyn - Frances, Antonio 41262872283760New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration37Frances, Ernest - Funk, William 41262882283761New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration38Fuoco, Mario - Garrett, Frank S. 41262892283762New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration39Garret, George - Ghiglino, Silvio 41262902283833New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration40Ghigna, Anthony Modest - Gleinig, John 41262912283834New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration41Gleisbert, Max - Gomez, Donato 41262922283835New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration42Gomez, Edgar Wm. - Granstedt, Gus 41262932283836New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration43Grant, Abe - Griffin, Lewis Franklin 41262942283913New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration45Gutman, Arthur H. - Hanak, Paul Charles 41262952368293New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration44Griffin, Loeis L. - Gutlove, Benjamin 41262972283914New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration46Hanakis, Antonio - Hartry, Peter Joseph 41262982283915New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration47Hartschuk, Edward Eugene - Heller, John 41262992283923New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration48Heller, Joseph - Higgins, Robert Rayfield 41263002283924New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration49Higgins, Theodore - Holland, Norman Norwood 41263012283974New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration50Holland, Peter F. - Hrvatin, Vincent 41263022283975New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration51Hryb, Steve - Intrator, Max 41263032283976New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration52Insalaca, Charles - Jansen, Henry Fredrick 41263042283977New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration53Jansen, John Fred'k Robert - Johnston, Richard Percell 41263052368021New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration54Johnston, Robert - Kalfus, Noah Zwi 41263062368022New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration55Kali, Louis - Katz, Olrich 41263072368023New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration56Katz, Uschar Jacob - Kennedy, Robert 41263082368080New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration57Kennedy, Robert Anthony - Klamroth, Albert 41263092368081New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration58Klamroth, Albert - Kolczynski, Zygmont 41263102368082New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration59Kominos, Peteir - Krein, Nathan 41263112368083New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration60Krein, William Abram - Ladner, Forest N. 41263122368112New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration61Ladner, Oscar - Lascala, Giacomo 41263132368113New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration63Leeder, Moe - Levine, Alex 41263142368114New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration64Levine, Alexander - Lind, William 41263152368141New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration62Lascala, Pietro - Leeder, Meyer 41263162368212New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration65Lind, William - Long, Sing 41263172368213New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration66Long, Thomas - Lust, George 41263182368214New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration67Lust, Israel - Mahlow, Gustave 41263192368215New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration68Mahlstedt, Robert A. - Manyk, William 41263202368289New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration69Manz, Daniel - Martin, Rafael 41263212368290New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration70Martin, Ralph D. - Meyersohn, Rubin 41263222368291New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration71Mayes, Alfred Harry - McEnty, Patrick Jas. 41263232368292New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration72McEntyre, Joseph A. - McNeif, Patrick Jos. 41263242368313New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration73McNeil, Barney Earl - Messuri, Hugo 41263252368314New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration74Mestchersky, Boris A. - Millner, Richard 41263262368315New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration75Millner, Samuel - Montalbano, Michael 41263272368404New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration76Montalbano, Patsy - Moses, Hans 41263282368405New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration77Moses, Herman - Murray, Gilbert 41263292368406New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration78Murray, Harry - Nemarich, Peter 41263302368431New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration80Norcross, Dean - O'Hare, Stephen 41263312368432New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration81O'Hare, Stephen M - Osnato, Vito 41263322368433New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration82Osnato, Pasvale - Pappas, Jeff 41263332368529New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration83Pappas, Jimmy - Pedlar, Henry 41263342368530New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration84Pedlar, Arthur William - Petros, Louis 41263352368407New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration79Nemath, Frank - Norcott, Arnett 41263362368531New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration85Petros, Odysseus - Plater, Graham Chelsea 41263372368532New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration86Plaza, Albert - Prater, Henry 41263382368559New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration87Prather, Allen - Quirino, Fedele 41263392368560New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration88Quirino, Peter Harry - Reddin, Patrick Joseph 41263402368561New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration89Reddin, Thomas Paul - Reyz, Merrayns 41263412368562New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration90Rezac, Christopher Nillan - Roberts, Benjamin 41263422368602New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration91Roberts, Benjamin English - Ronan, John Patrick 41263432368603New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration92Ronan, Joseph - Roth, Karl J 41263442368664New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration95Sandimannie, Momolu Gotton - Schapiro, Saul Aron 41263452368665New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration96Schuafsiro, Benjamin - Schreiber, Karl 41263462368854New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration93Roth, Leo Lipot - Ryan, John Charles 41263472368900New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration94Ryan, John Christie - Sanding, Adolph 41263482368666New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration97Schreiber, Louis - Seco, Sebastian Joseph 41263492368667New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration98Secunodino, John - Shea, James Joseph 41263502368746New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration99Shea, Jeremiah - Sill, Martin Frederick 41263512368747New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration100Sill, Louis George - Slavotsky, Louis 41263522368748New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration101Slavson, Samuel - Soccino, Michael 41263532368783New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration102Soccino, Michael - Spohrer, Albert 41263542368784New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration103Spohrer, Joseph - Stanton, Pine John 41263552368823New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration104Stanton, Miles Joseph - Strozzi, Luis 41263562368824New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration105Strub, Charles - Szurgot, Wtadzimir 41263572368825New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration106Szurkus, Anthony Clements - Them, Phillip 41263582368826New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration107Themal, Ernst Isidor - Tomak, Josef 41263592368925New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration108Tomeo, Pasquale - Tung, Ching King 41263602368980New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration109Tung, King Ching - Vansisen, Evertt Alanson 41263612368981New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration110Vanslet, Joseph - Viders, Abraham 41263622369036New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration111Vidics, Paul - Walker, Garfield Wilson 41263632369037New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration112Walker, Bulger Zeler - Webb, William Franklin 41263642369038New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration113Webb, William Nathaniel - Werner, George 41263652369039New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration114Werner, John George - Williams, Clarence Sylvester 41263722369061New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration115Williams, Clark Howard - Wohe, Richard Ernpet 41263732369062New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration116Wohl, Abraham - Yankus, Dominick 41263742369063New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration117Yannacci, John - Zeman, Frank 41263752369064New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration1Aarberg, Ole H. - Abramson, Louis 41263752369064New YorkNew York, Borough of Manhattan Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration118Zaman, Frederic David - Zywot, Andrew 41265022369119New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration2Abramson, Max - Alemanni, Frank 41265032369120New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration3Alemkin, Benjamin - Andersen, Karl Johan 41265042369121New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration4Andersen, Karsten G. H. - Ardizone, W. Edward 41265052369151New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration5Ardizzone, Bennie - Avitabile, William J. 41265062369152New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration6Avitable, Ralph - Barbato, Angelo J. 41265072369153New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration7Barbato, Cosimo Costadino - Baumgarten, Nathan 41265082369154New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration8Baumgartein, Samuel - Bender, Sam 41265092369226New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration9Bender, Samuel - Bernstein, Morris 41265102369227New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration10Bernstein, Morris - Blaier, David 41265112369269New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration12Bokser, Nathan - Brady, John 41265122369270New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration13Brady, John - Broms, Theodore Gustau 41265132369294New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration14Bron, Wladimir - Budnitsky, Benjamin 41265222369295New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration15Budny, Teofil - Caesar, Harry James 41265232369296New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration16Caesar, Saladino - Caporossi, Nicholas 41265242369297New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration17Caporro, Antonio - Caruso, Sebastiano 41265252369338New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration18Caruso, Thomas - Chagas, Raymond Castro 41265262369354New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration19Chagrin, Harry - Cicileo, Vicent 41265272369355New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration20Cicilia, Matia - Cohen, Harry 41265282369356New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration21Cohen, Harry - Colon, Luis 41265292369377New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration11Blaikie, Joseph Thomas - Bokser, Morris 41265302369378New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration22Colon, Nicholas - Corona, Joseph 41265312369379New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration23Corona, Vincent - Cugini, Carmine 41265322369380New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration24Cugini, Joseph - D'Amare, John 41265332369381New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration25Damore, Raffaele - Deemus, Edward John 41265342369422New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration26Deen, Kahih - DeNicolo, Christino 41265352369423New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration27Denien, Thomas - Dietsche, John 41265782369424New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration28Dietz, Aaron - Dondero, George 41265792369481New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration30Dua, Frank Julius - Egan, William Joseph 41265802369482New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration31Egan, William Joseph - Epstein, Morris 41265812369483New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration32Epstein, Morris - Farco, Nicholas 41265822369487New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration29Dondero, Humbert - D'Sena, Paul 41265932369552New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration33Farcone, Francisco - Feldman, Joe 41265942369553New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration34Feldman, John - Finkel, Benjamin 41265952369554New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration35Finkel, Benjamin - Flichtenfeld, Sam 41265962369555New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration36Flick, Emil - Francois, Charles Conrad 41265972369617New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration37Francois, Joseph - Friedlob, Samuel 41265972369617New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration82Oak, Alexander - O'Connor, John 41265982369618New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration38Frolio, Frank - Galuskin, David 41265982369618New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration83O'Connor, John - Odonnell, James Joseph 41266102369619New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration39Galuszewski, Ceslaw - Gelfman, Israel 41266112369620New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration40Gelfman, Louis - Giglio, Pietro 41266122369699New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration41Giglio, Ralph - Gleich, Oscar 41266132369700New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration42Gleich, Oscar - Goldman, Isaaac 41266142369701New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration43Goldman, Isaac - Gordon, Sam 41266152369713New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration44Gordon, Sam - Greebler, Usher 41266212369714New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration45Greece, Joseph - Groman, Samuel 41266222369715New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration46Groman, Samuel - Guyer, John Joseph 41266232369782New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration48Hansen, Abel Jens - Hayes, James Joseph 41266242369783New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration49Hayes, James Joseph - Herrlein, Connie George 41266252369886New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration50Herrlich, Henry - Hoffman, Boleslaw 41266262369968New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration47Guynan, Charles M. - Hansen, Aase Ernest 41266362369887New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration51Hoffman, Carl - Hothersall, Alexander 41266372369888New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration52Hothersall, Joseph F. - Israels, Hyman 41266382369916New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration53Hyacinthe, Christian - Jaffe, Bernard 41266392369917New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration54Jaffe, Bernard - Johnson, William 41266402369918New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration55Johnson, William Arthur - Kaminsky, Louis 41266412369964New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration56Kaminsky, Abe - Katz, Louis 41266482369965New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration57Katz, Louis - Keng, Low Hung 41266492369966New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration58Kenigsberg, Frank - Klasowitz, David 41266502369967New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration59Klass, Barnett - Konan, John 41266512370000New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration60Koslow, Max - Kropat, Max 41266522370001New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration61Kropf, Joseph - Laing, Noel 41266532370002New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration62Laing, William - Lasky, Charles 41266592370096New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration63Lasky, Harry - Leibowitz, Joseph 41266602370097New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration64Leibowitz, Joseph - Levine, Joshua 41266612370098New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration65Levine, Julius - Lieblein, Chaim 41266622370179New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration67Logan, William Joseph - Lukasik, Frank 41266632370180New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration68Lukasik, Stephen - Maggiore, Antonio 41266642370325New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration66Lieblein, Max - Logan, William Edward 41266792370181New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration69Maggiore, Bernard S. - Manfredonio, Joseph 41266802370182New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration70Manfredonio, Michele - Markowitz, Philip 41266812370183New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration71Markowitz, Philip - Matteo, James 41266822370184New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration72Matteo, John F. - McCue, Wertie Duncan 41266832370185New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration73McCue, William - McNally, Philip James 41266842370186New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration74McNally, Richard - Messina, Gastenzio 41266872370198New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration75Messina, Gerlando - Miller, Isaac 41266882370199New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration76Miller, Isaac - Mogavero, Joseph 41266892370200New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration77Mogavero, Leonardo - Morringiello, Donato 41266902370294New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration78Morrione, Vito - Murotznik, Charles 41266912370295New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration79Murov, Abraham - Naughton, Patrick Joseph 41266922370496New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration80Navehton, Peter - Nielson, John 41267002370326New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration81Nielson, Samuel - Obrecht, Ernest Friedrich 41267012370327New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration84Obrecht, Michael - Olsen, Sverre 41267022370328New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration85Olsen, Sverre - Palchun, Nicholas 41267032370329New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration86Palchwsky, Osipow William - Pasternack, Abraham 41267042370396New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration87Pasternack, Ben - Perlberg, Pincus 41267052370397New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration88Perlbinder, Max - Picone, Vincenzo 41267142370398New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration89Picone, Vito - Pollack, Robert 41267152370399New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration90Pollack, Sam - Prior, Clarence M. 41267162370484New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration91Prior, Patrick - Rango, Joseph 41267172370485New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration92Rango, Philip - Reibstein, Henry 41267182370486New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration93Reiburn, William Erwin - Richards, Edwin Russell 41267192370497New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration94Richards, Frederick Arthur - Rocca, Ralph Della 41267252370498New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration95Rocca, Vincenzo - Rosen, Rubin 41267262370499New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration96Rosen, Sam - Rosolie, Edward E. 41267272370500IllinoisIllinois Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M2097A, M2097B248Jerome Wolf Rosefield - Fred Andrew Roth (NARA Series M2097, Roll 248) 41267282370501IllinoisIllinois Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M2097A, M2097B249Fred Columbus Roth - Charles Ruczymki (NARA Series M2097, Roll 249) 41267762370523VirginiaVirginia Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration61Saunders, Frederick Robinson - Sergent, William Walter 41267772370524VirginiaVirginia Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration62Sergidis, Chris - Shum, May 41267782370525VirginiaVirginia Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration63Shumadine, James Oliver - Smith, Darian J. 41267792370526VirginiaVirginia Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration64Smith, Darian J. - Snodgrass, William Tyler 41267802370527VirginiaVirginia Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration65Snook, Clifford Chase - States, Joseph 41267882370528VirginiaVirginia Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration66Stath, George - Strouth, Walter 41268312370554VirginiaVirginia Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration67Strowes, Silas - Taylor, Dorsie Andrew 41268322370555VirginiaVirginia Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration68Taylor, Dorsie Andrew - Thompson, Bernie Cleveland 41268332370556VirginiaVirginia Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration69Thompson, Bernie Cleveland - Traylor, Wister David 41268342370557VirginiaVirginia Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration70Traynham, Alenzonda - Uzzle, Lloyd 41269662339667New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration105Shapiro, Charles - Shweitzer, Isidore 41269672339668New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration106Shweky, Abboud - Simon, Isidore 41269682339669New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration107Simon, Isidore - Smethurst, George Elmer 41269692339670New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration108Smetona, Matthew - Sollitto, Joseph 41269702370558VirginiaVirginia Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration71Vacalis, Paul Nick - Walker, Johnnie William 41269712370559VirginiaVirginia Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration72Walker, Joseph - Watkins, William Parker 41269722370560New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration97Rosolino, Bartholomew - Rubler, Samuel 41269732370561New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration98Rubler, William - Sackhein, Morris 41269742370562New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration99Sackin, Bennie - Santangelo, Michael A. 41269752370563New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration100Santangelo, Michael - Schaffer, Isidore 41269762370689New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration101Schaffer, Jack - Schmitt, Fabian 41269772370690New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration102Schmitt, Frank - Schwarting, Henry 41269782370691New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration103Schwartje, George Frederick - Seeman, Max 41269792370692New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration104Seeman, Max - Shapiro, Charles 41269882370749New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration117Van Laer, William - Vizzotti, Emanuel 41269892370750New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration118Vlachos, Constantine - Walther, Carl 41269902370751New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration119Walther, Charles George - Weiner, Jacob 41269912370752New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration120Weiner, Jacob - Wenser, Nathan 41269922370851New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration121Wensknuas, William - Williams, Clinton 41269932370852New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration122Williams, Coleman E. - Wolfman, Hyman 41269942373114New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration109Sollito, Joseph Anthony - Spinner, David 41269952373115New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration110Spinner, Frank C. - Steinhavser, Ernst Gustav 41269962373116New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration111Steinhauser, Joseph - Strouse, Clifford Francis 41269972373117New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration112Strouse, James W. - Taffner, Joseph Peter 41269982380581New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration113Taffurelli, Giacomo - Terlin, David 41269992380582New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration114Tevlin, Hyman - Topf, Moses 41270002380583New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration115Topilow, Hyman L. - Tudor, Abraham 41270012380584New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration116Tudor, Jack - VanKoot, Peter 41270072370853New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration123Wolfman, Jacob - Young, Joseph Edmund 41270082370857New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration124Young, Joseph Jerome - Zion, Hyman 41270092370858New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration1Aab, Ernest Frederick - Aiosa, Frank G. 41270092370858New YorkNew York, Borough of Brooklyn Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration125Zion, Samuel - Zywotko, Theodore 41270102370859New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration2Aira, Frank - Armani, Lawrence 41270112370860New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration3Armann, Frank - Banker, John 41270122370930New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration4Banker, Kenneth Eugene - Becker, Joseph 41270132370931New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration5Becker, Joseph John - Best, Archibald 41270142371033New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration7Bokius, William - Briggs, James A. 41270152371034New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration8Briggs, John R. W. - Bunten, John H. 41270162371035New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration9Bunting, Charles - Capetanakis, Michael J. 41270172371060New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration10Capicotto, Antonio - Chambers, John Clarke 41270182371061New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration11Chambers, John Raymond - Cohem, William Isaac 41270192371062New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration12Cohn, Aaron - Costas, Peter A. 41270202371146New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration6Best, Charles Henry - Bokenkamp, Richard 41270212371157New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration13Costeldo, Joseph - D'Angleo, Antonio 41270222371158New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration14D'Angelo, Benedict Frank - Denile, Pasquale 41270232371303New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration15DeStefano, Michele - Dnter, Anthony 41270392371304New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration16Doan, Israel - Dubsky, Arthur 41270402371305New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration17Dubson, Hyman - Elflein, Jack T. 41270412371396New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration18Elflein, Theodore Frederick - Fassnacht, Frank 41270422371397New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration19Fassnacht, George - Fitzgerald, William J. 41270432371398New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration20Fitzgerald, William Joseph - Freeman, Howard B. 41270442371399New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration21Freeman, Jack Raymond - Garmendia, Jose Maria 41270452371409New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration22Garmer, William - Giordano, Paul 41270462371410New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration23Giordano, Sabino - Graham, Leon Wilfred 41270472371411New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration24Graham, Matthew Joseph - Gumbel, George Henry 41270482371412New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration25Gumbel, John James - Hardy, Joseph Francis 41270492371483New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration26Hardy, Lawrence - Hellers, Leo 41270502371484New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration27Hellinger, Samuel - Hodgson, Arthur Joseph 41270512371485New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration28Hodgson, Claude Lowell - Hughes, George Joseph 41270522371486New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration29Hughes, George Ruben - Jawer, Samuel 41270532371612New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration30Jawitz, Meyer - Kandel, Michael Mihai 41270622371613New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration31Kandelman, Max - Kennedy, Oliver Kenneth 41270632371614New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration32Kennedy, Patrick James - Knoerzer, Philip 41270642371794New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration33Knoetgen, Peter Adam - Krist, Frank Joseph 41270652371795New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration34Krist, Stefan - Langrock, Frank C 41270662371796New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration35Langrock, Fred Robert - Leonhardt, George 41270672371797New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration36Leonhardt, George - Lofton, George Alexander Jr. 41270682371823New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration37Lofton, John Modrel - Madwick, J. Paul 41270692371824New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration38Maday, V. Alvin - Marqurz, Emidio 41270702371825New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration39Marquez, Martin - McCarty, Patrick 41270712371826New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration40McCarthy, Patrick D. - McNamara, Arthur J. 41270722371920New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration41McNamara, Bart - Michelsen, Henry Diedrich 41270732371921New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration42Michelsen, Emil John - Monziglio, Eraldo 41270742371922New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration43Mood, Thomas J. - Murphy, Francis James 41270752371923New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration44Murphy, James Francis - Nicolasen, Ernest 41270762371959New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration45Nicolassy, Kalman - O'Keefe, John Joseph 41270802371960New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration46O'Keefe, John Joseph - Pape, William George 41270812371961New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration47Papen, Bernhard John - Petra, Stergius Theodore 41270822371962New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration48Petracca, Carmine - Poth, Charles 41270832372046New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration49Poth, Frank - Rasbach, Frank Elliott 41270842372047New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration50Rasby, Walter - Rice, John Joseph 41270852372048New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration51Rice, John Peck - Romeo, Joseph 41270862372049New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration52Romeo, Joseph - Russo, Joseph A. 41270872372154New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration53Rosso, Joseph Paul - Scarpa, L. Loretto 41270882372240New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration54Scarpa, Mariano - Schneider, Charles Ernest 41270892372241New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration55Schneider, Charles Fred - Scott, John Henry 41270902372242New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration56Scott, John Joseph - Shuttleworth, George L. 41270912372243New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration57Shvidrik, Walter J. - Smith, Otto B. 41270922372288New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration58Smith, Otto Edward - Stanley, Ernest Thorsen 41270932372289New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration59Stanley, Fred Charles - Stritzel, Joseph 41270942372290New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration60Strnad, Anthony - Telsey, William 41270952372291New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration61Temesy, Frank - Treutle, Charles Jacob 41270962372416New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration62Treutle, George Harry - Vecere, John 41270972372417New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration63Vecere, Joseph F. - Walling, Marcus 41270982372419New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration65Weisser, Henry - Wills, Harry 41270992372600New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration66Wills, Herbert - Youmans, Irving Edgar 41271322372716New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration4Bain, Harry J. - Becker, Jacob 41271332372601New YorkNew York, Borough of Staten Island Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration2Aabol, Sak Nielsen - Argenciano, Pasquale 41271332372601New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration67Young, Adolf - Zrnity, Nikola 41271342372717New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration5Becker, Jacob - Bernson, Rubin 41271352372655New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration2Aalto, Edward - Amodio, Marco 41271362372656New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration3Amodio, Peter - Bain, Edward 41271462372718New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration6Bernstein, Aaron M. - Blumenthal, Louis 41271472372719New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration7Blumenthal, Louis J. - Breitl, Edward 41271482372720New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration8Breitman, Abram - Bumagin, Solomon 41271492372831New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration9Buman, George - Cardillo, Marco 41271502372832New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration10Cardillo, Louis - Chillis, Themis 41271602372833New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration11Chilos, Wilfrid Joseph - Cohen, Pincus 41271612372834New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration12Cohen, Ralph - Courtney, Roy Joel 41271622372893New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration13Courtney, William D. - Davidwitz, Harry 41271632372894New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration14Davidwitz, Harry - Dezelin, Peter 41271642372895New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration15De Zeller, George F. - Doswald, Hilary Joseph 41271652372971New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration19Filleul, Clarence John - Forestieri, Giuseppe 41271662372972New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration20Forestieri, Tom - Froehlich, Julius 41271682372896New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration16Dot, Ling Yee - Eig, Morris 41271692372897New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration17Eig, Nathan - Famiglietti, Nicola 41271722372970New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration18Famiglietti, Vincenzo - Fillet, Jacob 41271752246316New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration21Froelich, Leon - Geller, Gustave 41271762246317New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration22Geller, Harry - Gleeson, Patrick 41271772246318New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration23Gleeson, William F. - Goldstein, William Leon 41271782246319New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration24Goldstien, Max - Greenberg, Isaac 41271792246320New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration25Greenberg, Isaac - Guth, Harry Simpson 41271802246471New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration26Guth, Henry - Hartnett, John Joseph 41271842246473New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration28Hewitt, Alexander Scott - Horvat, Ludwing 41271852246472New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration27Hartnett, Maurice M. - Hewing, Huston 41271892246474New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration29Horvath, Andrew - Jacullo, Santo 41271902246576New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration31Kalmanowitz, Kalman - Kearney, John A. 41271912246577New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration30Jadrivic, John B. - Kalmanowitz, Joseph 41271922247150New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration33Klee, John Frank - Kotzin, David 41271932247151New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration34Kouacs, Michael - Lago, Rudolf 41271942247228New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration35Lagoff, Joseph - Lefelstein, Bennie 41271952247229New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration36Lefelstein, Hyman - Levy, Jacob 41271962247230New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration37Levy, Jacob B. - Loke, Ferdinand 41271972247281New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration38Loketch, Morris - Maglio, Ernest 41272032247149New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration32Kearney, John Ansbro - Klee, Hans 41272042247282New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration39Maglio, Frank domenick - Marino, Sebastiano 41272052247283New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration40Marino, Sebastiano - McCaffrey, Frank 41272062247284New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration41McCaffrey, George J. - McNally, Joseph Aloysius 41272072247322New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration42McNally, Owen - Milani, Ercole 41272082247323New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration43Milani, George Ercole - Moran, Patrick Joseph 41272092247324New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration44Moran, Patrick Joseph - Nadel, Dave 41272162247325New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration45Nadel, Elias - Norz, Benjamin Aoward 41272172247362New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration46Nosal, Abraham - Oshatz, Harry 41272182247363New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration48Pearson, Robert Ernest - Pirro, Nunzio 41272192247383New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration50Provenzano, Salvatore - Rehwinkel, Gustave Charles 41272202251867New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration47O'Shaughnessy, Christie - Pearson, Nils Bernard 41272212251898New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration49Pirrone, Anthony D. - Provenzano, Joseph 41272252247384New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration51Reibach, Bela - Roberts, Edward Louis 41272262247385New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration52Roberts, Eugene Leon - Rosenstein, Charles Phillip 41272272247428New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration53Rosenstein, David - Russo, Stephan 41272282247429New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration54Russo, Thomas - Sawyer, Barnet 41272312247430New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration55Sawyer, Frank M. - Schneiders, Henry 41272322251692New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration56Schneidman, Abraham - Seagrave, William Frederick 41272332251693New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration57Seagrave, Francis Edward - Sherman, Myer Harry 41272342251694New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration58Sherman, Nat - Sklarsky, Joseph 41272352251695New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration59Sklarsky, Max - Spindel, Morris 41272362251757New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration60Spindel, Samuel - Stucker, Herman 41272372251758New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration61Stuckert, Adam - Tenenbaum, Soloman 41272382251759New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration62Tenenbaum, Wolfe - Turletsky, Paul 41272392251760New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration63Turley, Christopher - Walden, Leo 41272402251804New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration64Walden, Max - Weinstein, Edward 41272412251805New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration65Weinstein, Elax - Wilk, Abe 41272422251806New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration66Wilk, George - Yennarelly, John 41272472372602New YorkNew York, Borough of Staten Island Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration3Ariansen, Johan Arent - Cerbone, Guiseppe 41272482372603New YorkNew York, Borough of Staten Island Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration4Cerbone, Luca - Ericson, Gustaw 41272492372617New YorkNew York, Borough of Staten Island Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration6Hefferman, David Edward - Larstanno, Salvatore 41272502372618New YorkNew York, Borough of Staten Island Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration7Larue, George James - Montera, Alphonso 41272512372616New YorkNew York, Borough of Staten Island Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration5Ericson, John - Heerbrandt, William Henry 41272522372686New YorkNew York, Borough of Staten Island Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration8Montero, Louis - Rebracca, Stephen 41272532372687New YorkNew York, Borough of Staten Island Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration9Rechten, William - Stark, Harry Joseph 41272542372688New YorkNew York, Borough of Staten Island Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration10Stark, Henry - Zylinski, Ludwing 41272552251866New YorkNew York, Borough of Bronx Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration67Yenovkian, George Nerseses - Zywokarta, Luke 41273912372418New YorkNew York, Borough of Queens Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration64Walling, William Harrison - Weisser, Bennie 41282922240665PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B171Koofer, John Charles - Koslosky, Peter 41282952240731PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B183Leighton, William Murdoch - Lepley, Homer Hurburt 41282962240666PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B172Koslosky, Simon G. - Kraft, Conrad 41282982240732PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B184Lepley, Ira Milton - Levy, Jacob Abram 41282992240695PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B173Kraft, Edward - Kreighbaum, William Benjamin 41283002240696PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B174Kreigline, Carl Joseph - Krug, Roy J. 41283012240697PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B175Krug, Russell Emmett - Kuljanic, John Giovanni 41283022240841PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B185Levy, Jacob Abraham - Lichman, Paul John 41283032240842PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B186Lichman, Frank (no middle) - Lini, Celeste 41283042240843PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B187Lini, Purley Washington - Livingston, Samuel Barker 41283102139090PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B219Miller, Thomas Thompson - Miller, Toy (frame 28); Minadakis, Emanuel Costantine (frame 29) - Misovki, Joseph (frame 2190) [repeated in correct alphabetical order on following film]; Miller, Tracy Clinton (frame 2191) - Milligan, Frank Oliver 41283132139091PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B220Milligan, Frank Ross - Missimer, Raymond Gilbert [includes repetition from previous film of Emanuel Costantine Minadakis through Joseph Misovki in corrected alphabetical order] 41283172139244PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B231Nagle, Guy Warren - Nedrow, Roy Earl 41283222139092PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B221Missimer, Richard Broadus - Mohr, Henry Frederic 41283242139245PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B232Nedrow, William F. - Nessler, Michael Albert 41283272139246PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B233Nessler, Norbert (R.) - Nichols, Norman Parker 41283282139281PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B234Nichols, Oliver Charles - Nolan, John Joseph (several registrants) 41283622139282PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B235Nolan, John Joseph (several registrants) - Nowoselski, Michael 41283632139283PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B236Nowosielske, John - O'Connell, Thomas Francus 41283642139284PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B237O'Connell, Thomas Francis - Oldt, Wm. Henry 41283682243586PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B5Ament, Walter Levi - Anderson, Peter Christie 41283692243587PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B6Anderson, Peter Elias - Antkoviak, Michael (no middle) 41283702243588PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B7Antkowiak, Anthony - Arnheim, Arthur 41283712243593PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B2Adams, George Wilson - Albert, Alexander Charles 41283722243594PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B3Albert, Alfred Raymond - Allen, James Cornwall 41283732243595PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B4Allen, James E. - Ament, Walter Ehmsen 41283742243940PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B1Aafjes, Herman Cornelis - Adams, George William 41283752243589PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B8Arnheim, Raymond Frederick - Atwell, Samuel 41283762243590PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B9Atwell, Samuel Burton - Bachmeyer, Harrison Keyser 41283772243591PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B10Bachmeyer, Ralph Herbert - Bajkowski, John 41283782243592PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B11Bajkowski, Joseph - Balhaff, Pete P (only) 41283792243621PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B12Ballak, Michael Joseph - Barber, Leonard 41283802243622PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B13Barber, LeRoy - Barnhart, Robert Hays 41283812243623PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B14Barnhart, Robert Pattison - Barto, Willis 41283822243624PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B15Barto, Wilson Wenner - Bauer, Justin 41283832243625PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B16Bauer, Karl Raymond - Beare, Robert George 41283842243664PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B18Bedillion, Ralph L. - Bell, Isaac 41283852243665PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B17Bearer, Albert Aaron - Bedillion, Norton Miner 41283862243666PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B19Bell, Isaac - Benner, William Thomas 41283872243667PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B20Benner, William Traumbauer - Bergman, Edward James 41283882243668PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B21Bergman, Elmer August - Best, Arthur C. 41283892243669PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B22Best, Arthur Nesbit - Biester, William Henry Jr. 41283902243688PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B23Biester, William Otto - Biskup, John F. 41283912243689PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B24Biskup, Joseph Albert - Blair, Howard Spencer 41283922243690PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B25Blair, Hugh (no middle) - Blosko, Frank 41283932243691PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B26Blosko, John J. - Boggs, Chester Lane 41283942243692PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B27Boggs, David Alexander - Bonkaski, Adam (no middle) 41283952243694PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B29Bortulin, John - Bowes, Joseph J. Sr. 41283962243734PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B30Bowes, Joseph Robert - Boyer, Newton William 41283972243735PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B31Boyer, Norman Albert - Brady, Robt. John 41283982243736PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B32Brady, Robert Louis - Breit, Wolfgang 41283992243693PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B28Bonkovski, Joseph - Bortscheller, Joseph 41284002243737PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B33Breita, John William - Bright, Howard K. 41284012243738PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B34Bright, Horace W. - Brooks, Harry Everett 41284022243739PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B35Brooks, Harry F. - Brown, Henry Arneke 41284032243740PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Selective Service System registration cards (World War II) : fourth registration ; NARA, M1951A, M1951B36
Sours: https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/United_States,_World_War_II_Draft_Registration_Cards,_1942_Digital_Folder_Number_List
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heinäkuuta 1943 Dartford, Kent, Englanti, Yhdistynyt kuningaskunta) on brittiläinen rockmuusikko, lauluntekijä, näyttelijä ja elokuvatuottaja. Famous for her starring in Italian Gothic horror films of the 1960s, her breakthrough performance was in Black Sunday (1960), where she played the dual role of Asa and Princess Katia Vajda. Gauthier and other former cast members returned in August 2009 for the series' 9,999th and 10,000th episodes, and he made another brief appearance in October and November 2009. Hello Games is best known for their Joe Danger series, and brought their unique development style to No Man's Sky.The game features planetary exploration, deep oceans, space-based battles, predators and prey, and much more across various … Includes … Sin embargo, es raro que alguien detrás de escena reciba un crédito. Das Unternehmen ist im OBX Index gelistet und entstand 2006 aus der Fusion von Pan Fish ASA mit Marine Harvest N.V. und Fjord Seafood. The Red Army Faction (RAF; German: Rote Armee Fraktion), in its early stages commonly known as Baader-Meinhof Group (or Baader-Meinhof Gang), was a West German terrorist organization. 1 Personality & Character 2 Skills & Capabilities 3 History 4 Picture Gallery 5 Notes & Trivia 6 External links She is Andrew Waltfeld's devoted partner, both on the battlefield and in private life. Wikipedia References [ edit ] Heinrich W. and Eve H. Guggenheimer, Jewish Family Names and their Origins an Etymological Dictionary (Ktav Publishing House: USA, 1992). Aisha (アイシャ, Aisha?) Mowi ASA (bis 31. page of … Michael Philip ”Mick” Jagger (s.26. The company was incorporated in Florida, Texas, California, New … Asa Siegel is known for his work on Max Payne 3 (2012), Sexchange (2003) and Alaskan Bush People (2014). Am 6. Kevin Buchanan Sr. is a fictional character on the ABC daytime soap operas One Life to Live and All My Children. Spider-Man: Homecoming on vuonna 2017 ensi-iltansa saanut supersankarielokuva, joka perustuu Marvel Comicsin suosittuun sarjakuvahahmoon Hämähäkkimies.Se on Hämähäkkimies-elokuvien toinen uudelleenkäynnitys sekä Marvel Cinematic Universen (MCU) kuudestoista elokuva ja kolmannen vaiheen neljäs elokuva. It claims millions of victims each year. Template:Infobox film High Plains Drifter is a 1973 American Western film directed by and starring Clint Eastwood, written by Ernest Tidyman, and produced by Robert Daley for Malpaso Company and Universal Pictures. Not actually evil, he does no long-term damage although he constantly seeks to pester and prove he's smarter than the Man of Steel. Asa Siegal es uno de esos. Dragons of Legend: Unleashed is a Booster Pack in the Yu-Gi-Oh! 5, 1940; II = AfO Beih.7 1942; reprint Osnabrück 1967) SCCNH: Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians (Winona Lake 1981 ff.) Mister Mxyzptlk is a reality-manipulating imp from the 5th Dimension who antagonizes Superman. 1 Births 1.1 Off-screen 1.2 On-screen 2 Deaths 3 Marriages 4 References SCD: E. Grant, Cuneiform Documents in the Smith College Library (= Biblical and Kindred Studies 1, Haverford, Pennsylvania 1918) There is not a specific cause to establish why domestic violence occurs. He cannot be made to return to his home dimension until he's tricked into saying, "Kltpzyxm," his own name backwards. Hebrejská univerzita v Jeruzalémě (hebrejsky האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים ‎‎, ha-Universita ha-ivrit bi-Jrušalajim; arabsky الجامعة العبرية في القدس ‎‎, al-Džamíjat ul-'ibríja fí-l-Quds; anglicky Hebrew University of Jerusalem, HUJI) je druhá nejstarší izraelská vysoká škola otevřená v roce 1925. Asa Siegel Wiki (Alaskan Bush People) Años, Novio, Instagram, Padres Difunde el amor. Barbara Steele (born December 29, 1937) is a British film actress, voice actress and producer. Kevin Buchanan (born Kevin Lord Riley) is a fictional character on the soap opera One Life to Live.The most recast character in the show's history, Kevin was last played by Dan Gauthier from June 2003 through November 2008. Rogue One: A Star Wars Story is a 2016 film directed by Gareth Edwards and produced by Lucasfilm president Kathleen Kennedy, amongst many others. Just one grandparent can lead you to many discoveries. No Man's Sky is a procedural science fiction exploration and survival game developed by English developer Hello Games out of Guildford, UK. Clifford James Geertz (lahir di San Francisco, 23 Agustus 1926 – meninggal di Philadelphia, 30 Oktober 2006 pada umur 80 tahun) adalah seorang ahli antropologi asal Amerika Serikat.Ia paling dikenal melalui penelitian-penelitiannya mengenai Indonesia dan Maroko dalam bidang seperti agama (khususnya Islam), perkembangan ekonomi, struktur politik tradisional, serta kehidupan desa dan keluarga. Sponsored by Ancestry ® Family History Search. Domestic violence is a crime that occurs regularly within the United States. Why not visit marriedwiki.com? Dezember 2018: Marine Harvest ASA; früher Pan Fish ASA) ist ein norwegisches Nahrungsmittelunternehmen mit Sitz in Bergen und der größte Zuchtlachskonzern der Welt. Mowi ASA is the world's leading seafood company, and the world’s largest producer of Atlantic salmon. Februar 2007 nannte sich Pan Fish ASA in Marine Harvest ASA… Morgan K. Melis (OLTL: 1976-1982; recurring) Chris Cunningham (OLTL: 1982; recurring) Jonathan Brandis (OLTL: 1982; recurring) Ryan Janis (OLTL: 1983-1990; recurring) Matthew Vipond (OLTL: 1990; recurring) Joey Thrower (OLTL: 1990-1992) Kirk Geiger (OLTL: 1992-1994) Jack … is a fictional character in Mobile Suit Gundam SEED. Avengers: Endgame adalah film pahlawan super Amerika 2019 yang didasarkan pada tim superhero Avengers dari Marvel Comics, diproduksi oleh Marvel Studios dan didistribusikan oleh Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures.Ini adalah sekuel The Avengers 2012, film 2015 Avengers: Age of Ultron dan film 2018 Avengers: Infinity War, dan film kedua puluh dua di Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). manga and TV series.1 1 Features 2 Breakdown 3 Galleries 4 Lists 5 References 6 External links Includes cards used by Yami Yugi, Seto Kaiba, Joey Wheeler, Rafael, Alexis Rhodes (GX anime and ARC-V anime versions), Jesse Anderson, Axel Brodie, Adrian … : H. Güterbock, Siegel aus Bogazköy (I = AfO Beih. The RAF described itself as a communist and anti-imperialist "urban guerrilla" group engaged in armed … The adrenal glands measure approximately 3 cm in width, 5.0 cm in length, and up to 1.0 cm in thickness. In 2020 the company had a turnover of EUR 3.8 billion. Mowi is listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange (OSE) and its share also trades on the US OTC market. Joseph "Joey" Buchanan is a fictional character on the ABC daytime soap opera One Life to Live. David Siegel Overview David Siegel has been associated with one company, according to public records. Enter a grandparent's name. The RAF was founded in 1970 by Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Horst Mahler, and Ulrike Meinhof. Kevin Buchanan Sr. is a fictional character on the ABC daytime soap opera One Life to Live. Dragons of Legend: The Complete Series is a set in the Yu-Gi-Oh! This is a list of significant dates from the ABC daytime soap opera, One Life to Live. Simplified. Joey Buchanan Tom Degnan as Joey Buchanan One Life to Live; Portrayed by: Ryan Morris (1982-1983) John Paul Learn (1983-1990) Chris McKenna (1990-1993) Nathan Fillon (1994-1997 & 2007) Don Jeffcoat (1997-2001) Bryce Michael Hall (2003 & 2004) Tom Degnan (2010-2011) Asa Siegel: Max Payne 3. Trading Card Game (TCG). It includes dozens of cards from the Yu-Gi-Oh! The company employs 12 200 people, and is represented in 25 countries. Asa Siegel - Founder @ STAMBA - Crunchbase Person Profile Foto: www.healinghotelsoftheworld.com, Dr. Kjell Nordström ... Spa Business issue 2 2017 by Leisure Media - issuu Siegel wins ASA Dissertation Research Grant. 1 Features 2 Breakdown 3 Galleries 4 Lists 5 External links Includes cards from Dragons of Legend, Dragons of Legend 2, and Dragons of Legend: Unleashed. On Monday, I posed a question to you as to why, when you photograph the Sun at the same exact time every day for a year, you get something that's shaped like a figure 8, like so: Structure. The screenplay, written by Chris Weitz and Tony Gilroy, is based on a story by John Knoll and Gary Whitta. An Irish Catholic Irish American clan, the family was created around the relationships and descendants of original male protagonist Joseph "Joe" Riley. Wanna know whether your favorite celebrity crush is taken or not? For the Beastie Boys song, see High Plains Drifter (song). This glamorous, coquettish young woman is also a capable strategist and mobile suit pilot. Graduate student Derek Siegel was awarded the a Research Improvement Grant from the American Sociological Association. La mayoría de los fanáticos y seguidores admiran el elenco del programa y las personas que aparecen en la pantalla. Joseph "Joey" Buchanan is a fictional character on the ABC daytime soap opera One Life to Live. Hänet tunnetaan erityisesti The Rolling Stonesin laulajana ja lauluntekijänä, mutta hän on … Diet sodas (or diet pop, diet, sugar-free, or light soft drinks, refreshments, or carbonated beverages) are usually sugar-free, artificially sweetened, non-alcoholic carbonated beverages targeted towards health-conscious people, diabetics, athletes, and other people who want to lose weight, improve physical fitness, or reduce how much sugar they eat. 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Abbreviations for Assyriology

A: tablets in the collections of the Oriental Institute, Univ. of Chicago

A2: lex. series a2 = idu

A-tablet: lexical text, see MSL 13 10ff.

Ä & L: Ägypten und Levante (Wien)

Aa: lex. series a2 || A = naqu; MSL 14, 201ff.

AAA: Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology (Liverpool 1908 -1948)

AAAS (aka AAS): Annales archélogiques de Syrie, (from 1966) Annales archéologiques arabes syriennes. Revue d'archéologie et d'histoire (Damascus 1951 ff.)

AAICAB (aka Ashm. 1): Grégoire, J.-P., Archives Administratives et Inscriptions Cunéiformes: Ashmolean Museum, Bodleian Collection, Oxford (Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner 1996)

AAN: Anthroponymie et anthropologie de Nuzi, vol. 1: Les Anthroponymes (Malibu 1977)

Aannepada lff.: royal inscr.; Steible ABW 2, 273ff.

AAS (aka Grégoire AAS, AAAS): J.-P. Grégoire, Archives administratives sumériennes (Paris 1970)

AASF: Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, Reihe B (Helsinki 1909 ff.)

AASOR: Annual of the American School(s) of Oriental Research (in Jerusalem) (New Haven/Cambridge, Mass. 1919/1920 ff.)

AASOR 57: D. C. Hopkins (Hrsg.), Across the Anatolian Plateau: Readings in the Archaeology of Ancient Turkey (Boston,MA 2002 [2000])

AAT: J.A. Craig, Astrological-Astronomical Texts (Assyriologische Bibliothek 14), Leipzig 1899.

ÄAT: Ägypten und Altes Testament (Wiesbaden)

AB: Assyriologische Bibliothek (Leipzig 1881 -1933); NF = Neue Folge, 1-2 (1933)

aB: Old Babylonian (altbabylonisch)

ABAA: Weidner, Ernst F., Alter und Bedeutung der babylonischen Astronomie und Astrallehre (Leipzig, 1914) = KAO 4

Abadahlugalga to his Brothers: letter; Ali Letters 117ff. B:13

Abaindasa to Sulgi: letter; Ali Letters 53ff. B:1

ABAW (aka AbhMünchen): Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Phil-hist. Klasse, NF = Neue Folge (Munich 1929 ff.)

AbB: Altbabylonische Briefe in Umschrift und Übersetzung (Leiden 1964 ff.)

abbr.: abbreviated, abbreviation

ABC: A.K. Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (= TCS 5, 1975)

ABC: Stevenson, J.H. Assyrian and Babylonian Contracts with Aramaic reference notes (New York: 1902)

Abel-Winckler: L. Abel and H. Winckler, Keilschrifttexte zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen

AbhBerlin: Abhandlungen ..

ABIM al-Zeebari, A. Altbabylonische Briefe des Iraq Museums. Dissertation (Münster: 1964)

Abieshuh 1: (StOr 55.1, 43f.)

Abieshuh 2: (StOr 55.1, 44)

Abieshuh 3: (RIME 4: Abiesuh 1001)

Abieshuh lff.: royal inscr.;

Abieshuh seals a-g: (RIME 4: Abiesuh 2001-2007)

Abisare 1: (StOr 49, 41f.; RIME 4: Abisare 2001)

Abisare 4: (StOr 49, 42-46; RIME 4: Abisare 1)

Abisare 5: (StOr 49, 46-47; RIME 4: Abisare 2)

Abisare lff.: royal inscr.

ABK: H. Winckler and E. Böhden, Altabylonische Keilschrifttexte zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen (Leipzig 1892)

ABL (aka HarperABL): R. F. Harper, Assyrian and Babylonian Letters (Chicago 1892-1914)

abl.: ablative

ABoT: K. Balkan, Ankara Arkeologji Müzesinde bulunan Bogazköy Tabletleri (Bogazköy Tablets in the Archaeological Museum in Ankara, Istanbul 1948)

ABPh: Ungnad, A. Altbabylonische Briefe aus dem Museum zu Philadelphia (Stuttgart: 1920)

Abr-N: Abr-Nahrain, (Department of Semitic Studies, University of Melbourne, 1961-1999). Continued by: Ancient Near Eastern studies

Abr-Nahrain Suppl. 5: G. Bunnens (Hrsg.), Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Near East. Papers Read at a Symposium Held in the University of Melbourne, Department of Classics and Archaeology 29-30 September, 1994 (Leuven:1996)

ABRT: J. Craig, Assyrian and Babylonian Religious Texts I/II (= AB 13, 1895/1897)

AbS-T: Field numbers of texts excavated at Tell Abu Salabikh

ABSA: Annual of the British School at Athens (London 1894/95 ff.)

ABTR: Arnold, William Rosenzweig, Ancient-Babylonian temple records in the Columbia university library, ed. with transcriptions into Neo-Assyrian characters., by William R. Arnold (New York, 1896)

ABW (aka Steible ABW, ASBW): H. Steible, Die altsumerischen Bau- und Weihinschriften (=FAOS 5)

ABZ: R. Borger, Assyrisch-babylonische Zeichenliste, AOAT 33 (Neukirchen-Vluyn 1978) Ergänzungsheft, AOAT 33A (Neukrichen-Vluyn 1980)

AcAntHung: Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae (Budapest)

acc.: accusative

ACh: Ch. Virolleaud, L'astrologie chaldéenne: S(in); Shamasz; Isht(ar); Adad; S/Supp. = Supplément; SS / 2.Supp. = Second Supplément (Paris 1905 - 1912)

achE: Achaemenid Elamite ( &lt; achämenid-elamisch)

AcIr: Acta Iranica (Tehran− Liège)

Ackerbau: B. Hruska, Tradicní obilnárství staré Mezopotámie / Der traditionelle Ackerbau im alten Mesopotamien (Prague 1990)

AcOr: (AKA Acta Or./ ActOr) Acta Orientalia (Budapest) Societates Orientales Batava, Danica, Norvegica, Svecica (Leiden 1923 ff.)

ACT: O. Neugebauer, Astronomical Cuneiform Texts (London 1955)

ActAnt (avoid AAntH): Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae (Budapest 1951 ff.) Actlr (aka AcIr) : Acta Iranica. Encyclopédie permanente des études iraniennes (Teheran 1974 ff.)

Actes du 8e Congrès International Actes du 8e Congrès International des Orientalistes, Section Sémitiques (B)

AcOrHung: Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae (Budapest)

Adab: Yang Zhi, Sargonic Inscriptions from Adab (PPAC 1, Changchun 1989)

ADAJ: Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan (Amman 1951 ff.)

ADART : A. J. Sachs & H. Hunger, Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts (1988 ff.)

ADB: C. H. W. Johns, An Assyrian Doomsday Book (Leipzig 1901)

ADD: C. H. W. Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents (Cambridge 1898 - 1923)

ADFU: Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft in Uruk-Warka (Berlin . .. 1936 ff.)

adj.: adjective

admin.: administrative (texts)

ADOG: Abhandlungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (Berlin 1956 ff.)

AdŠ: G. Wilhelm, Das Archiv des Šilwa-Tessup (Wiesbaden 1980ff.)

AdŠ 8: D. Stein, The Seal Impressions, text (Wiesbaden 1993)

AdŠ 9: D. Stein, The Seal Impressions, catalogue (Wiesbaden 1993)

adv.: adverb

aE: Old Elamite ( &lt; altelamisch)

AegFo (avoid ÄgFo.): Ägyptologische Forschungen (GIückstadt 1936 ff.) Aegyptus: Rivista italiana di Egittologia e di Papirologia

AEJ: C.F. Lehmann-Haupt, Armenien einst und jetzt, I-Ill (Berlin 1910 - 1931)

AeL (aka ÄL): Ägypten und Levante. Zeitschrift für ägyptische Archäologie und deren Nachbargebiete (Vienna 1990 ff.)

AEM: Archives épistolaires de Mari (Paris 1988 ff.)

AEP (aka AEPHE, Annuaire EPHE, EPHE): Annuaire de l'École pratique des Hautes-Études, Section des Sciences Historiques et Philologiques (Paris 1893 ff.)

AF: (aka AOF): H. Winckler, Altorientalische Forschungen 1-3 (Leipzig 1897-1906)

AfK: Archiv für Keilschriftforschung (Berlin)

AFD: J. L. Gautier Archives d'une famille de Dilbat (Kairo 1908)

AGH: E. Ebeling, Die akkadische Gebetsserie, Handerhebung (Berlin 1953)

AfK: Archiv für Keilschriftforschung (Berlin)

AfO (aka AfK): Archiv für Orientforschung (vol. 1-2 as AfK = Archiv für Keilschriftforschung, Berlin . . . Wien 1923 ff.); Beih. = Beiheft (1933 ff.)

AGGT: Administration at Girsu in Gudea's Time, Antichitistica 27. Studi Orientali 10, (Venice 2020)

AGH: E. Ebeling, Die akkadische Gebetsserie, Handerhebung (Berlin 1953)

AGM: Archiv für Geschichte der Medezin

Agricultura (avoid A. Salonen, Agricultura): A. Salonen, Agricultura Mesopotamica nach sumerisch-akkadischen Quellen (Heidelbeg 1981), (= AASF B 149)

AGS: Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon, Assyrische Gebete an den Sonnengott für Staat und königliches Haus aus der Zeit Assahaddons und Asurbanipals (Leipzig 1893)

AHamI: Adda-Hamiti-Insushnak, Elamite king, reigned 653-648 BC

AHAW (aka AbhHeidelberg): Abhandlungen der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften. Phil-hist. Klasse (Heidelberg 1913 ff.)

AHDO Archives d'histoire du droit oriental

ÄHK: E. Edel, Die ägyptisch-hethitische Korrespondenz aus Boghazköi in babylonischer und hethitischer Sprache (Opladen 1994)

AHw: W. von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch (Wiesbaden 1959 - 1981)

Ai (aka ai.): Ana ittišu (in MSL 1)

AIA: tablets in the collections of the Australian Institute of Archaeology (Melbourne)

AiFF: Walter Hinz, Altiranische Funde und Forschungen (Berlin 1969)

AION: (aka AIUON): Annali dell'Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli. Sezione linguistica (Naples 1959 ff.)

AIPHOS: Annuaire de l'Institut de philologie et d'histoire orientales et slaves, Université libre de Bruxelles. (Bruxelles, 1936)

Aistleitner Wörterbuch: J. Aistleitner, Wörterbuch der ugaritischen Sprache

AJ: Antiquaries Journal (London/Oxford 1921 ff.)

AJA: American Journal of Archaeology (Princeton/Baltimore 1897 ff.)

AJSL: American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures (Chicago 1895- 1941)

AKA: L. W. King, The Annals of the Kings of Assyria, I (London 1902)

Akk.: Akkadian

Akkadica: Akkadica. Périodique bimestriel de la Fondation Assyriologique Georges Dossin (Brussels 1977 ff.); Suppl. = Supplément (Leuven 1983 ff.)

AKL: Grayson, Assyrische Königsliste , RLA 6, 101-16.

AKT: Ankara Kültepe Tabletleri / Ankara Kültepe Tablets or Texts (vol. 1-2, Ankara 1990/1995, vol. 3 = FAOS Beih. 3, 1995)

AL: F. Delitzsch, Assyrische Lesestücke, mit grammatischen Tabellen und vollständigem Glossar; Einführung in die assyrische und babylonische Keilschriftlitteratur bis hinauf zu Hammurabi, für akademischen Gebrauch und Selbstunterricht, 4. durchaus neu bearb. Aufl. Assyriologische Bibliothek 16. (Leipzig 1912)

ALA (aka ALASP, ALASPM): Abhandlungen zur Literatur Alt-Syrien-Palästinas (und Mesopotamiens, Münster 1988 ff.)

Alan: lex. series alan = lanu

ALASP: Abhandlungen zur Literatur Alt-Syrien-Palästinas (Münster)

Aleppo: M. Touzalin 1982

AlHeth: H.A. Hoffner, Alimenta Hethaeorum (AOS 55, 1974)

AlT (aka Wiseman Alalakh, AT): D.J. Wiseman, The Alalakh Tablets (London 1953)

Altertumskunde: V. Christian, Altertumskunde des Zweistromlandes von der Vorzeit bis zum Ende der Achämenidenherrschaft, Bd. I (Leipzig 1940)

Altmesop. Weihplatten: J. Boese, Altmesopotamische Weihplatten. Eine sumerische Denkmalsgattung des 3. Jahrtausends v. Chr. (Berlin-New York 1971)

Alu: Akk. omen series Šumma Alu

AM: 1) A. Goetze, Die Annalen des Murshilish (= MVAG 29/3, 1925, reprint Leipzig 1967). 2) G. Cardascia, Les archives des Murashu (Paris 1951). 3) Museum sigla: Collection Albert Maignan

Amarsuen lff.: royal inscr.; Steible NBW 2, 218ff.

Amarsuen to Shulgi: letter; ISET 2, 115 Ni.3083 rev. i and dupl.

AMD: T. Abusch − K. van der Toorn (eds) Ancient Magic and Divination (Leiden / Boston 1999-2006)

AMD 1: T. Abusch − K. van der Toorn(Hrsg.), Mesopotamian Magic. Textual,Historical, and Interpretative Perspectives (Ancient Magic and Divination I) (Groningen 1999)

Amel-Marduk (aka AOATS 4): R. H. Sack, Amel-Marduk 562-560 B.C : a study based on cuneiform, Old Testament, Greek, Latin and Rabbinical sources (1972)

Amherst (aka Pinches Amherst): Th. G. Pinches, The Amherst Tablets

AMI: Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran (Berlin 1929- 1938); Erg.-Bd. = Ergänzungsband (1929 ff.); NF = Neue Folge (1968 ff.); Erg.-Bd. (NF.) = Ergänzungsband (Neue Folge)

AMI NF (aka AMI N.F.): Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, Neue Folge (from 1968), Berlin

Ammann-Festgabe: Oberhuber, K. 1953

Ammiditana 1: (StOr 55.1, 45)

Ammiditana 2: (RIME 4: Ammiditana 2)

Ammiditana lff.: royal inscr.;

Ammiditana seals a-a': (RIME 4: Ammiditana 2001-2012)

Ammisaduqa 1: (RIME 4: Ammisaduqa 1)

Ammisaduqa 2: (StOr55.1,46;RIME4: Ammisaduqa 2001)

Ammisaduqa lff.: royal inscr.;

Ammisaduqa seals a-o: (RIME 4: Ammisaduqa 2002-2016)

Amorites: Buccellati, G. 1966

AMT: R. C. Thompson, Assyrian Medical Texts (Oxford 1923)

An=Anum: lex. series an = anum

Ana ittisu: lex. series; MSL 1

Anadolu (aka Anadolu, Anadolu Arast., Anadolu Arastirmalari): Anadolu, Revue annuelle des études d'archéologie et d'histoire en Turquie (Paris 1951 ff.)

Anam 1: (StOr 49, 190; RIME 4: Anam 4)

Anam 2: (StOr 49, 190; RIME 4: Anam 5)

Anam 3: (StOr 49, 191, RIME 4: Anam 1)

Anam 4: (StOr 49, 191, RIME 4: Anam 2)

Anam 5: (StOr 49, 192; RIME 4: Anam 3)

Anam 6: (StOr 49, 193)

Anam Hymn: lit. comp.; A. Falkenstein, BaM 2, 80ff.

Anam seals a-b: (StOr 49, 193; RIME 4: Anam 2001 - 2002)

Anatolia: Anatolia. Revue annuelle d'archéologie (until 1961/62), Journal of the Institute for Research in Near Eastern Civilizations and Languages (1963), Anadolu (since 1964, Ankara 1956 ff.)

Anatolica: Anatolica. Annuaire international pour les civilisations de l'Asie antérieure (Leiden 1967 ff.)

AnBi (aka AnBibl, AnBiblica): Analecta Biblica (Rome 1952 ff.)

AncAlph (aka Anc. Alph.): R. H. Pfeiffer, Ancient Alphabets (Cambridge, Mass., 1947)

AncMesArt: E. Porada, Ancient Mesopotamian Art and Selected Texts (Pierpont Morgan Library, 1976)

ANEP: J. B. Prichard, The Ancient Near East in Pictures (Princeton 1954)

ANEP: J. B. Prichard, The Ancient Near East in Pictures (Princeton 1954)

ANES: Ancient Near Eastern Studies (Centre for Classics and Archaeology, University of Melbourne, Peeters Press, Louvain, 2000ff.) Continues: Abr-Nahrain

ANESS: Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplement Series (Centre for Classics and Archaeology, University of Melbourne, Peeters Press, Louvain, 2000ff.)

ANET: J. B. Prichard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton 19501; 19552; 19693)

Angim (aka Cooper Angim): lit. comp.; J.S. Cooper, The Return of Ninurta to Nippur (= AnOr 52)

Angry Sea: lit. comp.; O Angry Sea, R. Kutscher, YNER 6

Animal Husbandry: Marek Stepien, Animal Husbandry in the Ancient Near East: A Prosopographic Study of Third Millennium Umma (CDL Press 1996)

anm.: footnote (Anmerkungen)

Ann. Rost: TigI. III.

AnnNap: Annali dell'Istituto Orientale di Napoli

Annuaire: Annuaire de École Pratique des Hautes Études, Section sciences historiques et philologiques (Paris).

AnOr: Analecta Orientalia (Rome 1931 ff.)

Anp.: = Aššurnasirpal (from King, L.W., Annals of the Kings of Assyria. London:1905)

AnSt: Anatolian Studies (London 1951 ff.)

Antagal: lex. series an-ta-gal2 = šaqû; MSL 17, 131ff.

Anthroponymie (aka l'anthroponymie): H. Limet, L'Anthroponymie sumerienne

Anthropos: Anthropos. Internationale Zeitschrift für Völker- und Sprachenkunde (Salzburg/Mödling/Posiéux/ Freibung, Switzerland, 1906 ff.)

AO: 1) Der Alte Orient (Leipzig 1900 ff.). 2) Museum siglum Louvre (Antiquités orientales)

AOAT (aka AOATS): Alter Orient und Altes Testament (Kevelaer/Neukirchen-Vluyn 1969 ff.); S = Sonderreihe (1971 ff.)

AOATT (aka ATT): K. Veenhof, Aspects of Old Assyrian Trade and its Terminology (= SD 10, 1972)

AoB (aka AOB): Altorientalische Bibliothek, vol. I (Leipzig 1926)

AoBel: Acta Orientalia Belgica, Société Belge d'Études Orientales (Leuven)

AOeAW (aka AÖAW, ÖAW, OeAW): Anzeiger den Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Phil-hist. Klasse (Wien 1947 ff.)

AoF: Altorientalische Forschungen (Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des Alten Orients)(Berlin 1974 ff.)

AoN (aka AltorNot/ Aor Not.): Altorientalistische Notizen (Würzburg 1976ff.)

AOS: American Oriental Series (New Haven 1925 ff.)

AOTb: museum sigla, Louvre (Antiquités Orientales, Tello)

AOTc: museum sigla, Louvre (Antiquités Orientales, Tello)

ap (aka ap.): Old Persian (altpersisch)

APA: Acta praehistorica et archaeologica (Berlin 1970 ff.)

APAW (aka AbhBerlin): Abhandlungen der (Königl.) Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Phil-hist. Klasse (Berlin 1908 -1944)

ApI: Ernst Herzfeld, Altpersische Inschriften (AMI Erg. Bd. 1, Berlin 1938)

APN: K. Tallqvist, Assyrian Personal Names (= ASSF 43/1, 1914)

App.: appendix

AR: Kohler, J. and A. Ungnad. Assyrische Rechtsurkunden (Leipzig)

ARAB: D. D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia (Chicago 1926/27)

Arab.: Arabic

Aradmu to Shulgi 1: letter Ali Letters 27ff. A:1; Michalowski Correspondence 135ff.; Ali, Sumer 26, 146ff.; Michalowski LEM no. 96

Aradmu to Shulgi 2: letter; Michalowski Correspondence 160ff.

Aradmu to Shulgi 3: letter; Michalowski Correspondence 167ff.

Aradmu to Shulgi 4: letter; J. van Dijk, Sumer 15, 10ff.; Michalowski Correspondence 172ff.

Aradmu to Shulgi 5: letter; ms. P. Michalowski

Aradmu to Shulgi 6: letter; C. Wilcke WO 5, 2f.; Michalowski Correspondence 177ff.

Arch.: Archaic (texts)

Arch.: Archaeologia (London 1888-1966)

Archaeology: Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America)

ArchAnz. (aka AA): Archäologischer Anzeiger (Berlin 1849 ff.)

ArchBibel: Zabern, von (editor) nd

Archeology: Archeology. A magazine dealing with the Antiquity of the world (Cambridge, Mass.-New York)

Archives of Drehem: S. Langdon, Tablets from the Archives of Drehem

ARES: Archivi reali di Ebla. Studi (Rome 1988 ff.)

ARET: Archivi reali di Ebla. Testi (Rome 1985 ff.)

ARI: A.K. Grayson, Assyrian Royal Inscriptions (Wiesbaden 1972/1976)

ARK (aka EL): F. Eisser/J. Lewy, Die altassyrischen Rechtsurkunden vom Kültepe (I = MVAeG 33 [1930]; II = 35/3 [1935])

ARM: Archives royales de Mari (= TCL 22-31)

ARMT: Archives royales de Mari, traduction (Paris 1950 ff.)

ARN: M. Çig/H. Kizilyay/F. R. Kraus, Altbabylonische Rechtsurkunden aus Nippur (Istanbul 1952)

ArOr: Archiv Orientalni (Prague)

ARRIM: Annual Review of the Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia Project (Toronto 1983 ff.)

Art de la Mésopotamie: Ch. Zervos, L'art de la Mésopotamie de la fin du quatrième millénaire au XVe siècle avant notre ère (Paris 1935)

ArtAs (aka AA, Artibus Asiae): Artibus Asiae (Ascona 1925/26 ff.)

ARV: D. Arnaud, Altbabylonische Rechts- und Verwaltungsurkunden (= BBVOT 1, 1989)

AS: Assyriological Studies (Oriental Institute, Univ. of Chicago)

ASA: M. Höfner, Altsüdarabische Grammatik, Porta Linguarum Orientalium 24, Leipzig 1943

ASAW: Abhandlungen der S&auml;chsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Philologisch-Historische Klasse

Asb.: Assurbanipal, A = Prisma A following M. Streck, VAB VII/2 (1916) 2 ff.; B = Prism B following A. C. Piepkorn, AS 5(1933); (= Prism C following M. Streck, VAB VII/2, S.138 ff.); F = Prism F following J.-M. Aynard, Le prisme du Louvre (Paris 1957)

Ash.: R. Borger, Die Inschriften Asarhaddons (= AfO Beih. 9, 1956)

Ashergita: lit. comp.; J. Black, Acta Sum 7, 11-87

ASJ (aka Acta Sum) : Acta Sumerologica (Hiroshima, Japan 1979 ff.)

ASKT : P. Haupt, Akkadische und sumerische Keilschrifttexte

Ass. : Assyrian

AssCapp : P. Garelli, Les Assyriens en Cappadoce (Paris 1963)

ASSF : Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae (Helsinki)

AssLaws : G.R. Driver/J.C. Miles, The Assyrian Laws (Oxford 1935)

Assur : Assur. Monographic Journals of the Near East (Malibu 1974 ff.)

Assyrian Stone Vessels : Assyrian Stone Vessels and related material in the British Museum, A. Searight, J. Reade & I. Finkel (Oxbow 2008)

Assyriological Miscellanies : Assyriological Miscellanies (Institute of Assyriology, Copenhagen)

AST : Arastirma Sonuclari Toplantisi

astrol. : astrological (texts)

Astrolabe B : E. Weidner, Handbuch der babylonischen Astronomie 63ff.; E. Reiner and D. Pingree, BiMesop. 2/2, 151-152; G. ,Cagirgan, Belleten 48, 399- 416

astron. : astronomical (texts)

AT : Altes Testament

AT : Tel Atshana (Alalakh) Text, excavation sigla for 1937 (see also ATT)

ATHE : B. Kienast, Die altassyrischen Texte des Orientalischen Seminars in Heidelberg und der Sammlung Erlenmeyer (= UAVA 1, 1960)

Athenaeum : Athenaeum. Studi periodici di letteratura e storia dell'antichità; (Pavia 1913- 1922); NS = nova series (1923 ff.)

Atiqot : Journal of the Israel Department of Antiquities

ATR : H. Torczyner, Altbabylonische Tempelrechnungen (Vienna 1913)

Atra-hasis : W.G. Lambert and A.R. Millard, Atra–hasis: the Babylonian Story of the Flood; with the Sumerian Flood Story by M. Civil

ATT : Tel Atshana (Alalakh) Text, excavation sigla

ATU : Archaische Texte aus Uruk: vol. 1, A. Falkenstein (= ADFU 2, 1926); vol. 2, M. Green/H. Nissen, Zeichenliste der archaischen Texte aus Uruk (= ADFU 11, 1987; see ZATU); vol. 3 , R. Englund/H. Nissen, Die lexikalischen Listen der Archaischen Texte aus Uruk (= ADFU 13, 1993); vol. 5 = R. Englund, Archaic Administrative Texts from Uruk: The Early Campaigns (= ADFU 15, 1994); vol. 7 , R. Englund/H. Nissen, Archaische Verwaltungstexte aus Uruk: Die Heidelberger Sammlung (= ADFU 17, 2001)

AU : F. Sommer, Die Ahhijava-Urkunden (= AMAW NF 6, 1932).

AUAM (aka HMA) : tablets in the collections of the Andrews University Archaeological Museum

AUCT : Andrews University Cuneiform Texts (Berriens Springs, Michigan 1984 ff.)

AuOr (aka AulaOr.) : Aula Orientalis (Barcelona 1983 ff.)

AuOrS : Aula Orientalis Supplements

AUWE : Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka. Endberichte (Mainz 1987 ff.)

AVAM : Allgemeine und Vergleichende Archäologie des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Bonn, Materialien (Munich)

AW (aka Antike Welt) : Antike Welt. Zeitschrift für Archäologie und Kulturgeschichte (Mainz 1970 ff.)

AWAS : G. J. Selz, Altsumerische Wirtschaftsurkunden Sammlungen, 2 vols., (Franz Steiner Verlag 1993)

AWEL (aka G.J. Selz, AWEL) : G. J. Selz, Die Altsumerischen Verwaltungstexte aus Lagash, Teil 1: Die Altsumerischen Wirtschaftsurkunden der Eremitage zu Leningrad, FAOS 15/1 (Stuttgart 1989)

AWL : J.Bauer, Altsumerische Wirtschaftstexte aus Lagasch (= StPohl 9, 1971)

Aynard : Jeanne-Marie Aynard, Le prisme du Lourvre AO 19.939. Bibliothè de l'École des Hautes École des Hautes Études, IVe section, sciences historiques et philologiques

B

B. Rhode Island: Davidson, A. 1939

BA: Beiträge zur Assyriologie (und semitischen Sprachwissenschaft)(Leipzig 1890 ff.)

Baba and Ishmedagan: lit. comp. Römer SKIZ 236ff., and dupls.

BabAr: series Babylonische Archive (Dresden 2002)

BabLaws: G. Driver/J. Miles, The Babylonian Laws (Oxford 1955)

Babyl.: Babylonian

Babyloniaca (aka Bab ; Babyl): Babyloniaca: Études de philologie assyrobabylonienne (Paris 1906-1937)

Babylonian Genesis: A. Heidel, The Babylonian Genesis

Babylonisches Schrifttum: E. Unger, Babylonisches Schrifttum (Leipzig 1921)

BAD: G. A. Barton, Sumerian Business and Administrative Documents from the Earliest Times to the Dynasty of Agade. UMBS, vol. 9, no. 1. (Philadelphia, 1915)

BAfO: Beihefte zum Archiv für Orientforschung (Berlin-Graz 1933ff.)

BagF (aka BaFo): Bagdhader Forschungen (Mainz 1979 ff.)

BagM (aka BaM): Baghdader Mitteilungen (Berlin 1960 ff.); Beih. = Beiheft.

BAH: Bibliothèque archéologique et historique, Institut Francais d'Archéologie de Beyrouth (Paris 1921 ff.)

BAK: H. Hunger, Babylonische und assyrische Kolophone, Neukirchen-Vluyn 1968.

BAL: R. Borger, Babylonisch-assyrische Lesestücke (Rome 1963(1); 1979(2) [= AnOr.54])

Balag: M.E. Cohen, An Analysis of the Balag-Compositions to the god Enlil (diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania)

Balag Inanna: lit. comp.; S.N. Kramer, Aula Or5, 71ff.

BAM (aka Köcher Medizin): F. Köcher, Die babylonisch-assyrische Medizin in Texten und Untersuchungen (Berlin 1963 ff.)

BAOM: Bulletin of the Ancient Orient Museum (Tokyo 1979ff.)

BAP: B. Meissner, Beiträge zum altbabylonischen Privatrecht (= AB 11, 1893)

BAR: British Archaeological Reports. IS = International Series (London)

BASOR: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (New Haven 1919 ff.)

BATSH: Berichte der Ausgrabung Tall Šēh Hamad/Dūr katlimmu (Berlin)

BAU: E. Burrows, Archaic Texts (UET 2; London 1935)

Bauer: Theo Bauer, Das Inschriftenwerk Assurbanipals (Leipzig 1972)

BAV (aka Beziehungen): W. Helck, Die Beziehungen Ägyptens zu Vorderasien im 3. und 2. Jahrt. v. Chr. (Wiesbaden 19621; 19712)

BAW: Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften

BB: A. Ungnad, Babylonische Briefe aus der Zeit der Hammurapi-Dynastie. Vorderasiatische Bibliothek. (Leipzig, 1914)

BBDCP: E. Grant, Babylonian Business Documents of the Classical Period. (Philadelphia 1919)

BBEA: B. Landsberger and Th Bauer, Brief des Bischofs von Esagila an König Asarhaddon (Amsterdam 1965)

BbJ: W. Seipel and E. Wieczorek, eds., Von Babylon bis Jerusalem: Die Welt der altorientalischen Königsstädte I-II (Mannheim-Vienna-Milan 1999)

BBR: H. Zimmern, Beiträge zur Kenntnis der babylonischen Religion

BBS (aka BBSt.): L.W. King, Babylonian Boundary Stones and Memorial Tablets in the British Museum (London 1912)

BBVF (aka BBV): Berliner Beiträge zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte (Berlin 1957 ff.)

BBVO: Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderer Orient (Berlin 1982 ff.)

BBVOT: Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderer Orient Texte (Berlin 1989 ff.)

BC: C. Bezold, Catalogue of the Cuneiform Tablets in the Kouyunjik collection in the British Museum (5 vols.)

BCH: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, École Francaise d'Athènes (Paris . . . 1877 ff.)

BCSMS: Bulletin of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies. (Toronto 1981-2005)

BCT (aka CCTBCM, Watson Birmingham): P.J. Watson, Catalogue of cuneiform tablets in Birmingham City Museum

BDHP: L. Watermann, Business Documents of the Hammurapi Period (London 1916)

BDTNS: Base de Datos de Textos Neosumerios <http://bdtns.filol.csic.es> (Madrid)

BE: The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia 1893 ff.)

Beer and Brewing (aka A. L. Oppenheim, Beer): L.F. Hartman and A.L. Oppenheim, On Beer and Brewing Techniques in Ancient Mesopotamia (Baltimore 1950) (= JAOS Suppl. 10)

Behrens: T. Fish, The "Behrens" Collectlon of Sumerian Tablets in the Manchester Museum (= Notes from the Manchester Museum 30)

Belleten (aka Bell): Türk Tarih Kurumu, Belleten (Ankara 1937 ff.).

Berens (aka Pinches Berens, Berens Collection, BTBC, Berens Coll): G.T. Pinches, The Babylonian Tablets of the Berens Collection (= Asiatic Society Monographs 16, 1915)

Beschwörungen: M. Krebernik, Die Beschwörungen aus Fara und Ebla

BHAch 1: Bulletin d'histoire achéménide (Topoi Suppl. 1: 1997)

BHAch 2: Bulletin d'histoire achéménide (Persika 1: 2001)

BHLT: A. K. Grayson, Babylonian historical-literary texts, Toronto 1975.

BHT: S. Smith, Babylonian Historical Texts (London 1924)

BiAr (aka BA): Biblical Archaeologist (New Haven 1938 ff.)

Bib: Pontificio Istituto biblico (Rome 1920 ff.)

BID: W. Farber, Beschwörungsrituale an Ishtar und Dumuzi (Wiesbaden 1977)

Bier: W. Röllig, Das Bier im alten Mesopotamien (Berlin 1970)

BIFAO: Bulletin de l'Institut Francais d'Archéologie Orientale au Caire, Le Caire

bil.: Bilingual

Bildatlas: M. A. Beek, Bildatlas der assyrisch-babylonischen Kultur (Gütersloh 1961)

Bilingual: Bilingual reference(s)

Bilinguismo: Il bilinguismo a Ebla, ed. L. Cagni

BiMes (aka BiMesop., BiblMes., BM): Bibliotheca Mesopotamica (Malibu 1975 ff.)

BIN: Babylonian lnscriptions in the Collection of J. B. Nies (New Haven 1917 ff.)

BiOr: Bibliotheca Orientalis (Leiden 1943/44 ff.)

Bird and Fish: lit. comp.; ms. M. Roth; rev. ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

Bismya: E. Banks, Bismya of The Lost City of Adab (New York-London 1912)

Bit rimki: ritual series; see R. Borger, JCS 21, lff

Bit Rimki: J. Laessoe, Studies on the Assyrian Ritual and Series bit rimki

BIWA: R. Borger, Beiträge zum Inschriftenwerk Assurbanipals, (Wiesbaden 1996)

BJRL: Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, (Manchester, 1903ff.)

BJV (aka BJVF): Berliner Jahrbuch für Vor- und Frühgeschichte, NF = Neue Folge (Berlin 1961 ff.)

BKR: U. Seidl, Die babylonischen Kudurru-Reliefs (= OBO 87, 1989)

BL: S. Langdon, Babylonian Liturgies; coll. R. Borger

BL: A. Ungnad, Babylonian Letters of the Hammurapi Period. UVBS 7. (Philadelphia 1915)

BLMJ: Museum siglum of the Bible Lands Museum, Jerusalem

BM: Museum siglum of the British Museum, London

BM Creation: Babylonian Legends of the Creation, British Museum, 1921

BM Messenger (aka Sigrist Messenger): M. Sigrist, Messenger Texts from the British Museum

BMAH: Bulletin des Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, (Brussels 1901 ff.)

BMB: Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth, (1937 ff.)

BMC: Bollettino dei Musei Comunali di Roma

BMEJ (aka BMECCJ): Bulletin of the Middle Eastern Culture Center in Japan (Wiesbaden 1984 ff.)

BMFA: Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, (Boston 1926-1965)

BMisc.: F.H. Weissbach, Babylonische Miscellen, (Leipzig 1903)

BMHBA: Dávid, A. 1955

BMMA: Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, (New York 1905 ff.)

BMQ: British Museum Quarterly (London)

BMRAH: Bulletin des Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire (Bruxelles)

BMS: L.W. King, Babylonian Magic and Sorcery (London 1896)

BN: Biblische Notizen. Beiträge zur exegetischen Diskussion (Bamberg 1976 ff.)

BNYPL: Bulletin of the New York Public Library (New York)

Bo.: Tablet siglum of (unpublished) texts from Bogazköy

BOC: W. G. Lambert, Babylonian Oracle Questions, Eisenbrauns, 2007

Bogh.: Boghazkoy

BoHa: Bogazköy-Hattusha. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen (1-8 in WVDOG, Stuttgart/Berlin 1952ff.)

Boissier Choix: A. Boissier, Choix de textes relatifs à la divination assyro-babylonienne (1905)

BOR: Babylonian and Oriental Record, (London 1886-1901)

Borger: Rykle Borger, Assyrisch-babylonische Zeichenliste (Kevelaer 1978)

Bork, Zeughausurkungen: Ferdinand Bork, Die Zeughausurkunden von Susa, Teil I ( = Altkaukasische Studien, Heft III, Leipzig 1941)

BoSt: Boghazköi-Studien (Leipzig 1917 ff.)

BoTU: Boghazköi-Texte in Umschrift (Leipzig 1922-1926)

Boyer Contribution: Contribution a L'histoire Juridique

BPO : Babylonian Planetary Omens (1975 onwards)

BPOA: Biblioteca del Proximo Oriente Antiguo (Madrid, 2006ff.)

Br: R.E. Brunnow, A Classified List of Cuneiform ideographs (Leyden, 1887)

BRAD: J. Augapfel, Babylonische Rechtsurkunden aus der Regierungszeit Artaxerxes l. u. Darius II. (Vienna 1917)

BRM: Babylonian Records in the Library of J. Pierpont Morgan (New Haven 1917 ff.)

Brockmon: R. Kutscher, The Brockmon Tablets at the Univ. of Haifa: Royal Inscriptions

BSA: Bulletin on Sumerian Agriculture (Cambridge, England, 1984 ff.)

BSL: Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris (Paris)

BSOAS (aka BSOS): Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies (London 1917 ff.)

BSWSAS: Sejnen Aja Kenkyû (Bulletin of the Society for Western and Southern Asiatic Studies, Kyoto University (Kyoto 1958ff.)

BT: Brockman Tablets

BTL (aka BT): Babylonische Texte (Leipzig 1889-1897)

BTT: Babylonian Topographical Texts (George)

Bu (aka Bu.): museum siglum of the British Museum (Budge)

BuA: B. Meissner, Babylonien und Assyrien (Heidelberg 1920/25)

Buccellati Amorites: G. Buccellati, The Amorites of the Ur III Period

Buffalo SNS: Hussey, M. 1915

Bursin 1: (StOr 49, 26)

Bursin 2: (StOr 49, 26)

Bursin 3: (StOr 49, 27)

Bursin 4: (RIME 4: Bursin 2001)

Bursin lff.: royal inscr.

Bursin seals a-e: (StOr49,27f.;RIME4: Bursin 2002-2006)

BVW: Erich Ebeling, Bruchstücke einer mittelassyrischen Vorschriftensammlung für die Akklimatisierung und Trainierung von Wagenpferden, Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für Orientforschung Veröffentlichung No. 7. (Berlin 1951: Akademie Verlag)

BWL: W.G. Lambert, Babylonian Wisdom Literature (Oxford 1959)

BzN: Beiträge zur Namenforschung (Heidelberg)

bzw.: respectively (beziehungsweise)

C

C : consonant

CA : Current Anthropology (Chicago 1960 ff.)

CAD : The Assyrian Dictionary of the University of Chicago (Chicago 1956 ff.)

CAH : The Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge, England 1970 ff.3)

CahDAFI : Cahiers de la Délégation archéologique française en Iran

Calendars : M.E. Cohen, The Cultic Calendars of the Ancient Near East

Camb. : J. N. Strassmaier, Inschriften von Cambyses, König von Babylon (= BT 8-9, 1890)

CANES : E. Porada, Corpus of Ancient Near Eastern Seals in North American Collections, I: The Collection of the Pierpont Morgan Library (Washington 1948)

CanLam : M. E. Cohen, The Canonical Lamentations of Ancient Mesopotamia (Potomac, Maryland 1988)

Cat. : L. de Clerq/J. Ménamt, Collection de Clerq, catalogue …, I (Paris 1885/ 1888), II (1890/1903)

Cat. : K. Bezold, Catalogue of the Cuneiform Tablets in the Kouyunjik Collection

CAT : A. F. Rainey, Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets, HdO I 25, 1-4, Leiden 1996

Cat RSM 1907.690-50 5 : Dalley, S. 1979

Catalogue 3 : Auction nd

Catalogue Louvre : L. Heuzey, Musée National du Louvre, Catalogue des Antiquités Chaldéenes, sculpture et gravure à; la pointe (Paris 1902)

CatBM : H.H. Figulla, Catalogue of the Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum

CB : C.E. Keiser, Cuneiform Bullae of the Third Millennium B.C. Bab. Records in the Library of J.P. Morgan, part III. (New York, 1914)

CBCT : Chiera, E., Catalogue of the Babylonian Cuneiform Tablets in the Princeton University Library (Princeton 1921)

CBCY : Beckman, G. et al, Catalogue of the Babylonian collections at Yale

CBI : C. B. F. Walker, Cuneiform Brick Inscriptions in The British Museum, the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, the City of Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery, the City of Bristol Museum and Art Gallery (London 1981)

CBS : Museum siglum of the University Museum in Philadelphia (Catalogue of the Babylonian Section)

CCL (aka Cat., CCO) : L. Delaporte, Musée du Louvre, Catalogue des cylindres orientaux, cachets et pierres gravées de style oriental, I: Fouilles et missions (Paris 1920); II: Acquisitions (1923)

CCT : Cuneiform Texts from Cappadocian Tablets in the British Museum (London 1921-75)

CDA : Concise Dictionary of Akkadian

CdC II : L. de Clercq/J. Menant, Collection de Clercq, Bd. II (Cachets, briques, bronces, bas-reliefs) (Paris 1903)

CDCPP : R. H. Sack, Cuneiform documents from the Chaldean and Persian period (London/Toronto 1994)

CDLI : Cuneiform Digital LIbrary Initiative <http://cdli.ucla.edu/> (Los Angeles/Berlin)

CDLB : Cuneiform Digital Library Bulletin <http://cdli.ucla.edu/pubs/cdlb.html> (Los Angeles/Berlin 2002ff.)

CDLJ : Cuneiform Digital Library Journal <http://cdli.ucla.edu/pubs/cdlj.html> (Los Angeles/Berlin 2002ff.)

CDLN : Cuneiform Digital Library Notes <http://cdli.ucla.edu/pubs/cdln.html> (Los Angeles/Berlin 2003ff.)

CE : Codex Eshnunna

cf. : confer

CGSL : S. Moscati, A. Spitaler, E. Ullendorff and W. von Soden, An Introduction to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages, Wiesbaden 1964; 3d edition, 1980

CH : Codex Hammurabi

CHANE : Culture and history of the ancient Near East

Chantre : E. Chantre (ed.), Mission en Cappadoce 1893-1894 (Paris, 1898)

CHD : The Hittite Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (Chicago 1980 ff.)

CHEU (aka Contenau Contribution, HEU) : G. Contenau, Contribution à; I'histoire économique d'Umma (= Bibliothèque de l'école des Hautes Études, sciences philologiques et historiques 119, Paris 1915)

CHJ : G. Boyer, Contribution à; I'histoire juridique de la 1re Dynastie Babylonienne (Paris 1928)

Chronicles : L.W King, Chronicles Concerning Early Babylonian Kings

ChS : Corpus der hurritischen Sprachdenkmäler (Rome 1984 ff.)

CICh : C. F. Lehmann-Haupt, Corpus inscriptionum chaldaicarum (Berlin 1928/1935)

CII (aka CIIran) : Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum (London 1955 ff.)

Circulation of Goods : A. Archi (ed.), Circulation of Goods in Non-palatial Context in the Ancient Near East (Rome 1984)

CIRPL (aka Sollberger Corpus) : E. Sollberger, Corpus des inscriptions "royales" présargoniques de Lagash (Geneva 1956)

CKU : P. Michalowski, Correspondence of the Kings of Ur (2011)

CL : Codex Lipit-Ishtar

Clerge : D. Charpin, Le clerge d'Ur

CM : Cuneiform Monographs (Groningen 1992 ff.)

CM 36 : Finkel, I.L. &amp; Geller, M.J. (eds.) 2007, Disease in Babylonia. Brill. Leiden.

CMAwR : Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Rituals

CMAwR 1 : Abusch, T. & Schwemer, D. 2011, Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Rituals Vol. 1 (AMD 8/1). Brill. Leiden.

CMAwR 2 : Abusch, T. & Schwemer, D. 2016 Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Rituals Vol. 2 (AMD 8/2). Brill. Leiden.

CMAwR 3 : Abusch, T., Schwemer, D., Luukko, M., & Van Buylaere, G. 2020, Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Rituals Vol. 3 (AMD 8/3). Brill. Leiden.

CMAwR 4 : Van Buylaere, G. & Luukko, M. 2020, Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Rituals Vol. 4 – Glossaries and Indices (AMD 8/4). Brill. Leiden.

CMH : Museum sigla: Série H du Cabinet des Médailles

CNIP : Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications

CNRS : Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Paris

col(s). : column(s)

coll. : collated, collation

com. : Comitative

comm. : commentary (texts)

Commentaires : R. Labat, Commentaires assyro-babyloniens sur les presages

comp. : composition(s)

Comptabilité : Virolleaud, Charles, Comptabilité Chaldéenne 1903

Concept Sumérien (aka Y. Rosengarten CSC) : Y. Rosengarten, Le concept sumérien de consommation dans la vie économique et religieuse, étude linguistique et sociale d'après les textes présargoniques de Lagash (Paris 1960)

Contratti Ojeil : G. Matini, P. Negri Scafa, S. Ticca, S.Viaggio, Contratti della Collezione Ojeil (2014)

Copper and Tin : J.D. Muhly, Copper and Tin: The Distribution of Mineral Resources and the Nature of the Metals Trade in the Bronze Age

corr. : corrects, corrected

corresp. : correspondence; corresponds

COS : W. W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger, The Context of Scripture, 3 vols. (Brill 1997, 2000, 2002)

CPN : A.T. Clay, Personal Names of the Cassite Period. YOS 11, no. 2

Craft Archive : D. M. Loding, A Craft Archive from Ur (diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania 1974)

CRAI : Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (Paris 1857 ff.)

Creation of the Hoe : lit. comp.; ms. H. Behrens

CRRAI (aka CRRA, CRRAI, Rencontre) : Compte rendu de la Rencontre Assyriologique lnternationale. See RAI

CS : H. Frankfort, Cylinder Seals (London 1939, Reprint 1965)

CST (aka Fish Rylands Library) : T. Fish, Catalogue of Sumerian Tablets in the John Rylands Library (Manchester 1932)

CT : Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum (London 1896 ff.)

CT Metropolitan : see CCTM

CCTM (aka CTMMA; CTM; CT Metropolitan) : Corpus of Cuneiform Texts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (3 of 4 volumes have appeared as of June 2010)

CTH : L. Laroche, Catalogue des textes hittites (Paris 1966, Reprint 1971); premier supplément, RHA 30, 1972, S. 94-133

CTKC : Erle Leichty, A Bibliography of the Cuneiform Tablets of the Kuyunjik Collection in the British Museum (London 1964)

CTM : see CCTM

CTMMA : see CCTM

CTN : Cuneiform Texts from Nimrud (London 1972 ff.)

CTNMC (aka Jacobsen Copenhagen) : Th. Jacobsen, Cuneiform texts in the National Museum, Copenhagen (1939)

CTPSM : Cuneiform Texts in the Collection of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts (Moscow 2014 ff.)

CU : Codex Ur-Nammu

CUCT (aka CUT CUA) : Catholic University Cuneiform Texts

Curse Agade (aka Cooper Curse of Agade) : J.S. Cooper, The Curse of Agade (1983)

CUSAS : Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology (Bethesda, 2007ff.)

Cyl. : Cylinder

Cyr. : J. N. Strassmaier, Inschriften von Cyrus, König von Babylon (= BT 7, 1890)

D

DA : A. Boissier, Documents assyriens relatifs aux présages (Paris 1894-99)

DAB (aka Thompson DAB) : R.C. Thompson, A Dictionary of Assyrian Botany (London 1959)

DACG (aka Thompson DAC) : R. C. Thompsom, Dictionary of Assyrian Chemistry and Geology (Oxford 1936)

DAFI (aka CahDAFI) : Cahiers de la Délégation anchéologique francaise en Iran (Paris 1971 ff.)

Damiqilishu 1 : (StOr49, 37f.; RIME 4,102f.: Damiqilisu 1)

Damiqilishu 2 : (StOr 49, 38f.; RIME 4, 103f.: Damiqilisu 2)

Damiqilishu 3 : (RIME 4, 104f.: Damiqilisu 3)

Damiqilishu 5 : (RIME 4, 105f.: Damiqilisu 2001)

Damiqilishu lff. : royal inscr.;

DamM : Damaszener Mitteilungen (Mainz 1983 ff.)

Dar. : J. N. Strassmeier, Inschriften von Darius, König von Babylon (= BT 10- 12, 1892-97)

DAS : B. LaFont, Documents Administratifs Sumériens, provenant du site de Tello et conservés au Musée du Louvre (Paris 1985)

Das Sumerische : A. Falkenstein, Das Sumerische. Handbuch der Orientalistik (Leiden 1959)

dat. : dative

DAT : B. Lafont, Documents administratifs sumeriens provenant du site de Tello

Date Palm : B. Landsberger, AfO Beiheft 17

DAWO (aka DAWIfO) : Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Institut für Orientforschung (Berlin)

DBPS (aka DBPSz) : N. Lihacev, Drevnejsija bully i pecaty Sirpurly = Mem. de la section class. de la Soc. imp. russe d'archéologie, 4 (1907), p. 225-263

DCM : F. Joannès (dir.), Dictionnaire de la Civilisation Mésopotamienne (Paris 2001)

DCS (aka Charpin Durand Documents) : D. Charpin/J.-M. Durand, Documents cunéiformes de Strasbourg (Paris 1981)

Death of Dumuzi : lit. comp.; S.N. Kramer, AnSt 30, 5ff.; CT 58, 51

Death of Urnammu : lit. comp.; S.N. Kramer, JCS 21, 104ff.; C. Wilcke, Rencontre 17 81ff.; Susa version ms. M. Civil, rev. ms. S.J. Tinney

DecChaldée (aka DC t/p) : Découvertes en Chaldée par E. de Sarzec, ouvrage accompagné de planches, publié par les soins de L. Heuzey, avec le concours de A. Amiaud et F. Thureau-Dangin pour la partie épigraphique. Premier volume: texte (Paris 1884-1912), Second volume: partie épigraphique et planches (Paris 1884-1912)

Devils : The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia, R. Campbell Thompson (London 1903 vol. 1, 1904 vol.2)

DeZ : Museum siglum Dein ez-Zor

Diri : lex. series diri = watru

disc. : discussion

diss. : dissertation

DMOA : Documenta et monumenta Orientis antiqui (Leiden 1947 ff.)

DN : divine name

DoCu (aka Durand Documents, DC, Cat. EPHE, DCEP) : Jean-Marie Durand, Documents cunéiformés de la IVe Section de l'École pratique des Hautes Etudes, vol. 1: catalogue et copies cunéiformés (= HEO 18, 1982) (Geneva 1982)

DP : M. F. Allotte de la Fuÿe, Documents présargoniques (Paris 1908-1920)

DPA (aka EDPA) : H. Limet, Etude de Documents de la Période d'Agade (Société d'Editions &#147;Les Belles Lettres&#148; 1973)

Dreams : A.L. Oppenheim, The Interpretation of Dreams in the Ancient Near East (= TAPS 46/3)

Drehem : M. Sigrist, Drehem

DS (aka DSz): H.G. Güterbock, The Deeds of Shuppiluliuma as Told by his Son Murshili II, JCS 10 (1956) 41-68; 75-98; 107-130

DSGl : F. Delitzsch, Sumerisches Glossar (Leipzig, 1914)

DSGr : F. Delitzsch, Sumerische Grammatik (Leipzig, 1914)

DTA : A.T. Clay, Documents from the Temple Archives of Nippur. UMBS 11, nos. 1 and 2. (Philadelphia, 1913)

DTCFD : Dil Tarih ve Cografya Fakültesi Dergisi (Ankara)

Dumuzi's Dream : lit. comp.; B. Alster Mesopotamia 1, and dupls.; RA 69, 97-108; new ms. M.W. Green; rev. ms. B. Alster

Dumuzi-Inanna A : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 115ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna B : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 125ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna C : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 146ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna C1 : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 323ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna D : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 171ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna D1 : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 340ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna E : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 186ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna E1 : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 353ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna F : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 193ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna F1 : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 363ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna G : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 200ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna H : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 209ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna I : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 218ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna L : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 230ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna M : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 232f.

Dumuzi-Inanna O : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 234ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna P : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 243ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna R : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 262ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna T : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 273ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna V : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 284ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna W : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 288ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna X : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs (BE 31, 46)

Dumuzi-Inanna Y : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 301ff.

Dumuzi-Inanna Z : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 317ff.

dupl(s). : duplicate(s)

DynChal : Janneau, Guillaume. Une dynastie chaldéenne: les rois d'Ur. (Paris, P. Geuthner, 1911)

E

EA : J. A. Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna-Tafeln (= VAB II, Leipzig 1915)

Ea : lex. series e-a || A = naqu; MSL 14, 171ff.

EAE : Enuma Anu Enlil (Babylonian astronomical series)

EAK : Einleitung in die assyrischen Königsinschriften. R. Borger, Teil I: Das zweite Jahrtausend v. Chr.; W. Schramm, Teil II: 934-722 v. Chr., in: HdOr. Erg.-Bd. V 1,1 (1961) und 1,2 (1973)

Eames (aka Eames Coll.) : A.L. Oppenheim, AOS 32

Eannatum lff. : royal inscr.; Steible ABW 1, 120ff.

Early Rulers : see Sumerian Poem 4

EBH Early Babylonian History, Hugo Radau, 1900

Ebla 1975-1985 (aka Dieci anni) : L. Cagni (ed.), Ebla 1975-1985, Dieci anni di studi linguistici e filologici, Atti del Convegno Internazionale (Naples 1987)

Ebla Bil. Voc. : lex. text; MEE 4

Eblaitica : Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language (Winona Lake, 1987 ff.)

econ. : economic (texts)

Economic History : Economic History / Hospodárske Dejiny, Praha, vol. 15 (Prague 1986)

ECTJ : A. Westenholz, Early Cuneiform Texts in Jena

ED : Early Dynastic

ED Animal List A : lex. text, MEE 3, 47ff.

ED Animal List B : lex. text; MEE 3, 57ff.

ED Bird List A : lex. text; MEE 3, 109ff., with appendix by M. Civil, 275ff

ED Lu : lex. series; Early Dynastic recensions of Lu; MSL 12, 3ff.

ED Proverbs : B. Alster AfO 38/39, 1-51

ed(s). : edited, editor(s)

EDA : H. Limet, Etude de documents de la periode d'Agade appartenant a l'Universite de Liege

EDATS : F. Pomponio and G. Visicato, Early Dynastic Administrative Tablets of Šuruppak. Naples, 1994.

Ee. : Enuma elish (Babylonian creation myth)

EE : Stolper, Matthew W., Entrepreneurs and empire : the Murašû Archive, the Murašû Firm, and Persian rule in Babylonia. Leiden & Istanbul 1985: Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Istanbul

EEN : N. Veldhuis, Elementary Education in Nippur (Ph.D. dissertation)

EG (aka GE, gilg., Gilgamesh Epic) : Epic of Gilgamesh (Babylonian epic)

EG : A. Dillmann, Ethiopic Grammar, 2d edition, 1899, Translated by J. A. Crichton (London 1907)

EI : Enzyklopädie des Islam (Leiden 1913-1934)

EK : Excavations at Kish : the Herbert Weld (for the University of Oxford) and Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago) Expedition to Mesopotamia, 1924-1934

ELA : S. Cohen, Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta (diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania)

Elam. : Elamite

Elementary Education : N. Veldhuis, Elementary Education at Nippur: the List of Trees and Wooden Objects

Elevation of Ishtar : lit. comp.; B. Hruska, ArOr 37, 473ff.

Ellil : F. Nötscher, Ellil in Sumer und Akkad

ELTS : I. J. Gelb, P. Steinkeller, and R. M. Whiting, Jr., Earliest Land Tenure Systems in the Near East: Ancient Kudurrus (=OIP 104; Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 1989, 1991)

Emar 6 (aka Emar VI) : D. Arnaud, Recherches au pays d'Astata: Emar 6/1-4, Textes sumeriens et accadiens (Paris 1986)

Emesal Voc. : lex. series; MSL4, 3ff.

Emesal-Studien (aka M.K. Schretter, Emesal) : M. K. Schretter, Emesal-Studien, Sprach- und literuturgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zur sogenannten Frauensprache des Sumerischen, Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Kulturwissenschaft, Sonderheft 69 (Innsbruck 1990)

En. el. : Akk. lit. comp.; Enuma elish

Enannatum I 1ff. : royal inscr., Steible ABW 182ff.

Enannatum II 1ff. : royal inscr.; Steible ABW 1, 273ff.

Enc. phot. : M. Rutten, Encyclopédie photographique de l'art, Tome II (Paris 1936)

ENES (aka Yale) : B. Buchanan, Early Near Eastern Seals im the Yale Babylonian Collection (New Haven 1981)

Enki and Ninmah : lit. comp.; C. Benito, "Enki and Ninmah" and "Enki and the World Order" (diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania); rev. ms. S.J. Lieberman

Enki and the World Order (aka Enki-WO) : lit. comp.; C. Benito, "Enki and the World Order" (diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania); rev. ms. M.W. Green

Enki's Journey to Nippur : lit. comp.; A. al-Fouadi, Enki's Journey to Nippur (diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania)

Enkimansum and Giriniisag : lit. comp.; BE 31, 45 and dupls.

Enkitalu and Enkihegal : lit. comp.; ms. M. Civil

Enkl and Ninhursaga : lit. comp.; S.N. Kramer, BASOR SS 1; rev. ms. S.J. Lieberman; P. Attinger, ZA 74, lff

Enlil and Namzitarra : lit. comp.; M. Civil, AfO 25, 68ff.

Enlil and Ninlil (aka Behrens 1978) : lit. comp.; H. Behrens, Studia Pohl SM 8, 1978

Enlil and Sud : lit. comp.; M. Civil, JAOS 103, 43ff

Enlil in the Ekur : lit. comp.; Falkenstein Götterlieder 5ff., D. Reisman Two Neo-Sumerian Royal Hymns (diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania) 41ff.; rev. ms. S. Kupferberg

Enlil's Chariot : lit. comp., J. Klein, Acta Sum 11 37ff

Enlilbani 1 : (StOr 49, 28)

Enlilbani 2a : (StOr 49, 29)

Enlilbani 2b : (StOr 49, 29; RIME 4: Enlilbani 3)

Enlilbani 3 : (8tOr 49, 30; RIME 4: Enlilbani 5)

Enlilbani 4 : (StOr 49, 30f.; RIME 4: Enlilbani 6)

Enlilbani 5 : (StOr 49, 31; RIME 4: Enlilbani 9)

Enlilbani 6 : (StOr 49, 31; RIME 4: Enlilbani 8)

Enlilbani 7 : (StOr 49, 32; RIME 4: Enlilbani 11)

Enlilbani 8 : (StOr 49, 33; RIME 4: Enlilbani 4)

Enlilbani 9 : (StOr 49 33 RIME 4: Enlilbani 7)

Enlilbani A : lit. comp.; A. Kapp, ZA 51, 76ff. and dupls., rev. ms. M. Roth

Enlilbani lff. : royal inscr.

Enlildirishe : lit. comp.; Römer SKIZ 39ff. and dupls.; rev. ms. S.J. Tinney

Enmerkar and Ensuhkeshdanna : lit. comp A. Berlin Enmerkar and Ensuhkesdanna (= 0PBF 2); H. Behrens, AfO 29-30 98ff.; rev. ms. H. Behrens

Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta : ht. comp.; S. Cohen (diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania); rev. ms Å.W. Sjöberg

Enmetena lff. : royal inscr.; Steible ABW 1, 21 lff.

Enshakushanna lff. : royal inscr.; Steible ABW 2, 293ff.

Ensi and Sanga to a King : letter; Ali Letters 109ff. B:11

epigr. : epigraphical(ly)

Epithetes (aka ÉR) : M.-J. Seux, Epithetes royales akkadiennes et sumeriennes (Paris 1967)

ePSD : electronic Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary Project <http://psd.museum.upenn.edu/epsd/index.html (Philadelphia)

Equids : R. H. Meadow, H.-P. Uerpmann, Equids in the Ancient World, Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Reihe A 19/1 (Wiesbaden 1986)

ERC : Edition Recherche sur les Civilisations, Cah. = Cahiers Mém = Mémoire (Paris)

Eridu : M.W. Green, Eridu in Sumerian Literature (diss., Univ. Of Chicago)

Eridu Lament : lit. comp.; M.W. Green, JCS 30, 127ff.

Erimhush : lex. series erim2-hush = anantu; MSL 17, 3ff.

ErIsr. (aka Eretz-Israel, Er(etz) Isr(ael), EI) : Eretz Israel, Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies (Jerusalem 1951 ff.)

Erra Epic : Akk. lit comp., L. Cagni, Studia Pohl 5

Ershemma : M.E. Cohen, Sumerian Hymnology: The Ershemma

ES : Emesal

ESA : Eurasia Septentrionalis Antiqua (Helsinki 1926/1927 ff.)

ESA : Eurasia Septentrionalis Antiqua (Helsinki 1926/1927 ff.)

ESA : A. F. L. Beeston, A Descriptive Grammar of Epigraphic South Arabian (London 1962)

ESEM : tablets in the collections of the Archaeological Museums, Istanbul

esp. : especially

Essays Gordon : The Bible World: Essays in Honor of Cyrus H. Gordon

ETB : Excavations at Tell Brak, edited by D. Oates, J. Oates & H. McDonald, 2001

ETCSL : Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature <http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk> (Oxford)

Etelpidamu to Mardu : letter-prayer, ms. P. Michalowski

Etudes Garelli (aka Études Garelli) : Marchands, Diplomats et Empereurs: Etudes sur la civilisation mesopotamienne offertes a Paul Garelli

EvM : Evil-Merodach . . ., in: B.T.A. Evitts, Inscriptions of the reigns of Evil-Merodach, Neriglissar and Laborosoarchod (=BT 6 B, 1892)

EVO : Egitto e Vicino Oriente

Ewe and Grain : lit. comp. ms. M. Civil, B. Alster and H. Vanstiphout, Acta Sum 9, lff.

Exaltation : W.W. Hallo and J.A. van Dijk, The Exaltation of Inanna (YNER 3)

Examenstext A : llt. comp. (Edubba A), Å.W. Sjöberg, ZA 64, 137ff., and dupls.

Examenstext B : lit. comp. (Edubba B) ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

Expedition : Expedition. Bulletin of the University Museum of the University of Pensylvania (Philadelphia 1958 ff.)

ext. : extispicy

F

FAOS : Freiburger Altorientalische Studien (Freiburg 1975 ff.); Beih. = Beihefte: Altassyrische Texte und Untersuchungen (1984 ff.)

FARG : Forschungen zur Anthropologie und Religionsgeschichte

Farmer's Instructions (aka Civil Farmer's Instructions, Farmer's Almanac, Georgica 1.1.1) : M. Civil, The Farmer's Instructions: A Sumerian Agncultural Manual (= Aula Or Suppl. 5)

Father and Son : lit. comp. Å.W. Sjöberg JCS 25, 105ff. and dupl.; rev. ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

Fauna : B. Landsberger, Die Fauna des Alten Mesopotamien (= ASAW 42/6)

fem. : feminine

FHG : E. Laroche, Fragments hittites de Genève, RA 45/3 (1951) pp. 131-138; 45/4 (1951) pp. 184-194; 46/1 (1952) pp. 42-50. Updated in E. Laroche, Sur les Fragments hittites de Genève (FHG), RA 46/4 (1952) p. 214

FHL : J.-M. Durand/E. Laroche, Fragments hittites du Louvre, in: Gs. K. Atatürk (Paris 1982) S. 73-107

fig(s). : figure(s)

Fischerei (aka A. Salonen, Fischerei, FAM) : A. Salonen, Die Fischerei im alten Mesopotamien nach sumerisch-akkadischen Quellen (Helsinki 1960), (= AASF B 166)

Flood Story : lit. comp.; M. Civil, in W.G. Lambert and A.R. Millard, Atra-hasls: The Babylonian Story of the Flood, 138ff.

Florenz : K. Oberhuber, Sumerische un akkadische Keilschriftdenkmaler des Archaologischen Museums zu Florenz

FLP : Museum siglum, Free Library of Phildadelphia

fn. : footnote

FN : field name(s)

FNLD (aka FNALD) : J. N. Postgate, Fifty Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents (Warminster 1976)

Fo (aka Fö) : W. Förtsch, Altbabylonische Wirtschaftstexte aus der Zeit Lugalanda's und Urukagina's, VS 14/I (Leipzig 1916)

Foreign Trade : W.F. Leemans, Foreign Trade in the Old Babylonian Period

Fowler and his Wife : lit. comp., B. Alster, JCS 27, 214f.

fragm. : fragment(ary)

freq. : frequent(ly)

From the 21st Century : S. Garfinkle & M. Molina, From the 21st Century B.C. to the 21st Century A.D.: Proceedings of the International Conference on Sumerian Studies Held in Madrid 22–24 July 2010 (Eisenbrauns, 2013)

Frühdyn. Beterstatuetten : E. Braun-Holzinger, Frühdynastische Beterstatuetten (Berlin 1977)

Frühe Schrift : H. Nissen, P. Damerow, and R. Englund, Frühe Schrift und Techniken der Wirtschaftsverwaltung im alten Vorderen Orient (Berlin 1990)

Frymer-Kensky Ordeal : T.S. Frymer-Kensky, The Judicial Ordeal in the Ancient Near East (diss., Yale Univ.)

Fs : Festschrift (Anniversary volume, Studies in honor of, etc.)

Fs Astour : Crossing boundaries and linking horizons : studies in honor of Michael C. Astour on his 80th birthday, edited by Gordon D. Young, Mark W. Chavalas, Richard E. Averbeck, with the assistance of Kevin L. Danti (Bethesda, Md. 1997)

Fs Borger : Festschrift für Rykle Borger zu seinem 65. Geburtstag am 24. Mai 1994: tikip santakki mala basmu, herausgegeben von Stefan M. Maul (Groningen 1998)

Fs Diakonoff (aka Studies Diakonoff) : Societies and Languages of the Ancient Near East: Studies in Honour of I.M. Diakonoff

Fs Finkelstein : Essays on the ancient Near East in memory of Jacob Joel Finkelstein, edited by Maria de Jong Ellis. (Hamden, Conn. 1977)

Fs Gaster (aka Gaster Festschrift) : JANES 5

Fs Geers : From Assurbanpal's Library: Studies in Memory of F. W. Geers: JNES 33/2-3 (1974) {pp 183-266?}

Fs Geller : Panayotov, S. & Vacín, L. (eds.) 2018, Mesopotamian Magic and Medicine (AMD 14). Brill. Leiden.

Fs Gordon : Orient and Occident. Essays presented to Cyrus H. Gordon on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday., Edited by Harry A. Hoffner. Kevelaer, Butzon &amp; Bercker; Neukirchen-Vluyn, Neukirchener Verlag, 1973

Fs Greenfield : Solving riddles and untying knots : biblical, epigraphic, and Semitic studies in honor of Jonas C. Greenfield /, edited by Ziony Zevit, Seymour Gitin, Michael Sokoloff (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1995)

Fs Hallo (aka Studies Hallo) : The Tablet and the scroll: Near Eastern studies in honor of William W. Hallo, edited by Mark E. Cohen, Daniel C. Snell, David B. Weisberg (Bethesda, Md.: CDL Press, 1993)

Fs Hewett : So live the works of men : seventieth anniversary volume honoring Edgar Lee Hewett, edited by Donald D. Brand and Fred E. Harvey (Albuquerque, N.M.: University of New Mexico Press, 1939)

Fs Hilprecht : Hilprecht anniversary volume. Studies in Assyriology and archaeology dedicated to Hermann V. Hilprecht upon the twenty-fifth anniversary of his doctorate and his fiftieth birthday (July 28), by his colleagues, friends and admirers (Leipzig, J.C. Hinrichs, 1909)

Fs Jones : Studies in honor of Tom B. Jones /, herausgegeben von Marvin A. Powell, Jr. und Ronald H. Sack (Kevelaer: Butzon &amp; Bercker ; Neukirchen-Vluyn : Neukirchener Verlag, 1979) = AOAT 203.

Fs Koschaker : Festschrift Paul Koschaker : mit Unterstützung der Rechts- und Staatswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin und der Leipziger Juristenfakultät, zum sechzigsten Geburtstag überreicht von seinen Fachgenossen (Weimar: Böhlaus, 1939)

Fs Kraus (aka Studies Kraus) : Zikir Shumim: Assyriological Studies Presented to F.R. Kraus

Fs Lambert : George, A.R. & Finkel, I.L. (eds.) 2000, Wisdom, Gods and Literature. Studies in Assyriology in Honour of W.G. Lambert. Eisenbrauns. Winona Lake, IN.

Fs Larsen : Assyria and Beyond: Studies Presented to Mogens Trolle Larsen, edited by J. G. Dercksen (Nederlands Instituut voor het Nebije Oosten, 2004)

Fs Levine : Ki Baruch Hu: Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical, and Judaic Studies in Honor of Baruch A. Levine

Fs Limet : Tunca, Ö and S. Dehesell, Tablettes et images aux pays de Sumer et d'Akkad : mélanges offerts &#133; Monsieur H. Limet Mémoires (Association pour la Promotion de l'Histoire et de l'Archéologie Orientales) 1. (Liege: Université de Liege 1996)

Fs Matous : B. Hruska, G. Komoróczy (eds.), Festschrift Lubor Matous (Budapest: Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, &#211;kori Történeti Tanszekek, 1978)

Fs Moortgat : Vorderasiatische Archäologie. Studien und Aufsätze. A. Moortgat zum 65. Geburtstag gewidmet (Berlin 1964)

Fs Moran (aka Studies Moran) : Lingering over Words: Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Literature in Honor of William L. Moran

Fs Oberhuber : Im Bannkreis des Alten Orients : Studien zur Sprach- und Kulturgeschichte des Alten Orients und seines Ausstrahlungsraumes : Karl Oberhuber zum 70. Geburtstag gewidmet /, herausgegeben von Wolfgang Meid und Helga Trenkwalder (Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck, 1986)

Fs Reiner (aka Studies Reiner) : Language, Literature, and History: Philological and Historical Studies Presented to E. Reiner (= AOS 67)

Fs Rinaldi : Studi sull'Oriente e la Bibbia : offerti al p. Giovanni Rinaldi nel 60. compleanno da allievi, colleghi amici. Genova : Studio e vita, 1967.

Fs Römer (aka Römer Festschrift) : dubsar anta-men: Studien zur Altorientalistik, Festschrift fur Willem H.Ph. Römer zur Vollendung seines 70. Lebensjahres mit Beitragen von Freunden, Schulern und Kollegen, AOAT 253

Fs Salonen : Festschrift A. I. Salonen, StOr 46 (Amsterdam and Oxford 1976)

Fs Sigrist (aka Studies Sigrist) : Piotr Michalowski, ed., On the Third Dynasty of Ur: Studies in Honor of Marcel Sigrist, JCS SS 1. Boson, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 2008.

Fs Sjöberg (aka Studies Sjöberg) : DUMU E2-DUB-BA-A: Studies in Honor of Å.W. Sjöberg

Fs Steve : Fragmenta Historiae Aelamicae: Mélanges Offerts à M-J. Steve. L. De Meyer, H. Gasche and F. Vallat, eds. Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations. Paris, 1986.

Fs Struve : Drevnij mir, sbornik statej akademiku Vasiliju Vasil'evich Struve, Shakhov, F. 1964

Fs Wilcke. : Sallaberger, W., Volk, K., and Zgoll, A.Literatur, Politik und Recht in Mesopotamian. Festschrift für Claus Wilcke. Orientalia Biblica et Christiana 14. Harrassowitz: Wiesbaden, 2003.

FT (aka de Genouillac FT) : H. de Genouillac, Fouilles de Telloh

FTP : H.P. Martin et al, The Fara tablets in the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 2001

FTS : S.N. Kramer, From the Tablets of Sumer

FuB (aka FB) : Forschungen und Berichte, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (Berlin i957 ff.)

FuF : Forschungen und Fortschritte (Berlin 1925-1967)

Fussbekleidung : A. Salonen, Die Fussbekleidung der alten Mesopotamier &lt;= AASF 157)

FWG : Fischer Weltgeschichte, vols. 2-4: Die Altorientalischen Reiche (Frankfurt a. Main 1965-1967)

G

GAG : W. von Soden, Grundriss der Akkadischen Grammatik, Analecta Orientalia 33, Rome 1952; Ergänzungsheft mit Nachträgen, Analecta Orientalia 47, Rome 1969; 2d edition mit Ergänzungsheft, Analecta Orientalia 33/47, Rome 1969; 3d edition, Analecta Orientalia 33, Rome 1995

GCCI (aka GC) : R. P. Dougherty, Goucher College Cuneiform Inscriptions (New Haven 1923-33)

Geers Heft : Unpublished volumes of copies of texts and fragments from the British Museum Kouyunjik collection.

gen. : genitive

GEN : A. Shaffer, Sumerian Sources of Tablet XII of the Epic of Gilgamesh (Univ. of Pennsylvania, diss., 1963)

Genava : Bulletin du Musée d'Arts et d'Histoire de Genève (Genf 1923-1952); NS = nouvelle série (1953 ff.)

geogr. : geographical (texts)

Geschlechtsreife : Geschlechtsreife und Legitimation zur Zeugung, ed. E.W. Muller

Getreide : F. Hrozny, Das Getreide im alten Babylonien

GGA : Göttingische Gelehrte Anzeigen

GGL : J. Marzahn, Die Grundlagen der Getreideproduktion in Lagash (unpublished)

Gilgamesh and Agga : lit. comp.; S.N. Kramer, AJA 53 lff W. Römer AOAT 224ff.; H. Vanstiphout, Aula Or 5, 138ff

Gilgamesh and Huwawa A : llt. comp.; ms. A. Shaffer; cf. S.N. Kramer, JCS 1, 3ff. and dupls.; line numbering after D.O. Edzard, ZA 81, 165ff.

Gilgamesh and Huwawa B : lit. comp.; ms. A. Shaffer; line numbering after D.O. Edzard, BAW Philosophisch-Historische Klasse Sitzungsbericht 1993/4:16ff.

Gilgamesh and Huwawa Short Version : lit. comp.; M. Ellis, AfO 28

Gilgamesh and the Bull of An : lit. comp.; A. Cavigneaux, RA 87 (1993): 97-129

Gilgamesh and the Netherworld : lit. comp.; A. Shaffer, Sumerian Sources of Tablet XII of the Epic of Gilgamesh (diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania)

Gilgamesh II : A. R. George, The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic, vol. II, Oxford University Press, 2003

Gishshakidu of Umma : royal inscr.; Steible ABW 2, 268

GKT : K. Hecker. Grammatik der Kültepe-Texte, Analecta Orientalia, 44 (Rome: Pontificum Institutum Biblicum).

GLH : F. Laroche, Glossaire de la langue hourrite, I (= RHA 34/35, 1976/78)

GMA (aka Glyptik) : P. Amiet, La glyptique mésopotamienne archa&#239;que (Paris 19611, 19802)

GMTR : Guides to the Mesopotamian Textual Record

GN : geographical name

GPA : see CTN (volume 2)

gramm. : grammatical (texts)

Gratz Ann. Vol. : Gratz College Anniversary Volume

Gud. : Gudea-Inschriften. Sigeln und Numerierng nach der Edition von H. Steible FAOS 9, 1-2 (Stuttgart 1991)

Gudea Cyl. A and B : lit. comp.; F. Thureau- Dangin, TCL 8; R. Averbeck, A Preliminary Study of Ritual and Structure in the Cylinders of Gudea (diss., Dropsie College) 589ff.; RIME 3/1, 68-106

Gudea lff. : royal inscr.; Steible NBW 1, 256ff.

Gudea Statue Aff. : royal inscr.; Steible NBW 1, 154ff.; RIME 3/1, 29-67

Gudea to his God : letter-prayer; TMH NF 3, 56 and dupl. UM 29-15-995

Gudeaenlilla to Dingirmansum : letter; TMH NF 3, 57

Guide3 : E. Budge/C. J. Gadd/H. Hall/S. Smith, A Guide to the Babylonian and Assyrian Antiquities, 3d ed (London 1922)

Gungunum 1 : (StOr 49, 40; RIME 4: Gungunum 3)

Gungunum 2 : (StOr 49, 40; RIME 4: Gungunum 1)

Gungunum 3 : (StOr 49, 41; RIME 4: Gungunum 2)

Gungunum lff. : royal inscr.

Gungunum seals a-c : (StOr 49, 41; RIME 4: Gungunum 2001-2003)

GvG : Carl Brockelmann, Grundriss der Vergleichenden Grammatik der Semitischen Sprachen, 2 vols., Leipzig 1908 and 1913, reprinted Hildesheim 1961

H

H : field numbers of tablets excavated at Tell-Hadad

HAB : F. Sommer/A. Falkenstein, Die hethitisch-akkadische Bilingue des Hattushili l. (= AMAW NF 16, 1938; reprint, Hildesheim 1974)

Haja (aka Steible Haja) : H. Steible, Ein Lied an den Gott Haja (diss., Albert- Ludsvigs Univ., Freiburg)

HamG (aka HG) : J. Kohler/F. L. Peiser/P. Koschaker/A. Ungnad, Hammurabis Gesetz (Leipzig 1904-23)

Hammurabi 01 : (StOr 49, 141f.: Rimsin 1, RIME 4: Hammurabi 1)

Hammurabi 02 : (StOr 55.1, 6-10; RIME 4: Ham-

Hammurabi 04 : (StOr55.1,15f.;RIME4:Hammurabi 4)

Hammurabi 05 : (RIME 4, 332: Hammurabi 5)

Hammurabi 08 : (StOr 55.1, 12-13, RIME 4: Hammurabi 8)

Hammurabi 09 : (StOr 55.1, 12-13; RIME 4: Hammurabi 9)

Hammurabi 10 : (RIME 4, 344f.: Hammurabi 10)

Hammurabi 11 : (RIME 4, 345ff.: Hammurabi 11)

Hammurabi 12 : (StOr 55.1,4f.; RIME 4: Hammurabi12)

Hammurabi 13 : (StOr 55.1, 1; RIME 4: Hammurabi 13)

Hammurabi 14 : (StOr 55.1, 1-2, RIME 4: Hammurabi 14)

Hammurabi 15 : (StOr 55.1, 2-3; RIME 4: Hammurabi 15)

Hammurabi 16 : (StOr 55.1, 3-4; RIME 4: Hammurabi 16)

Hammurabi 21 : (RIME 4, 357: Hammurabi 1001)

Hammurabi 22 : (StOr 55.1, 18; RIME 4: Hammurabi 2001)

Hammurabi 23 : (StOr 55.1, 17; RIME 4: Hammurabi 2002)

Hammurabi 24 : (RIME 4: Hammurabi 2003)

Hammurabi 25 : (RIME 4: Hammurabi 2004)

Hammurabi lff. : royal inscr.

Handwerk : H. Neumann, Handwerk in Mesopotamien, Untersuchungen zu seiner Organisation in der Zeit der III. Dynastie von Ur. Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des Alten Orients 19 (Berlin 1987)

Harem : Ernst Weidner, Hof- und Haremserlasse assyrischer Könige aus dem 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. (mit 6 Tafeln), AOf 17 (1954-56) 257-293

Harps : Th. Jacobsen, The Harps That Once . . .

HaS : I. J. GeIb, Hurrians and Subarians (= SAOC 22, 1944)

Hatt. : A. Götze, Hattushilish. Der Bericht über seine Thronbesteigung nebst den Paralleltexten (= MVAeG 29/3, 1925)

Hattori dissertation : A. Hattori, Texts and Impressions: A Holistic approach to Ur III cuneiform tablets from the University of Pennsylvania expeditions to Nippur (University of Pennsylvania, 2002)

Haupt Akkadische Sprache : Paul Haupt, Die akkadische Sprache: Vortrag gehalten auf dem fünften internationalen Orientalisten-Congresse zu Berlin, 1883

Haupttypen : A. Falkenstein, Die Haupttypen der sumerischen Beschwörung (LSS NF 1)

Hausgeräte I (aka A. Salonen HAM, HAM) : A. Salonen, Die Hausgeräte des alten Mesopotamier nach sumerisch-akkadischen Quellen, Teil I (Helsinki 1965), (= AASF B 139)

Hausgeräte II (aka A. Salonen HAM II) : A. Salonen, Die Hausgeräte des alten Mesopotamier nach sumerisch-akkadischen Quellen, Teil II: Die Gefäße (Helsinki 1966), (= AASF B 144)

HAV (aka HAV lff) : Hilprecht Anniversary Volume

HBA (aka HdBA) : E. F. Weidner, Handbuch der babylonischen Astronomie, I (= AB 23, 1915)

HdA (aka HdAr.) : Handbuch der Archäologie, im Rahmen des Handbuchs der Altertumswissenschaft (München 1939 ff.)

HdCh : F.W. König, Handbuch der chaldischen Inschriften (= AfO Beih. 8, 1955/1957)

HdOr : Handbuch der Orientalistik (Leiden 1948 ff.); Erg.Bd. (1955 ff.)

Hebr. : Hebrew

HED : J. Puhvel, Hittite Etymological Dictionary (Berlin 1984 ff.)

Heisserer : A. J. Heisserer (ed.), Classical Antiquities: The collection of the Stovall Museum of Science & History (University of Oklahoma, 1986)

Hendursaga Hymn : lit. comp.; D.O.Edzard and C. Wilcke, AOAT 25, 139ff.

HEO : Hautes études orientales (Geneva 1968 ff.); für Bd. 18 s. Car. EPHE.

Heron and Turtle : lit. comp.; G. Gragg, AfO 24, 51ff.; rev. ms. M. Civil

Hethitica : Hethitica (Leuven 1972 ff.)

HFAC : G. Beckmann/H. A. Hoffner, Jr., Hittite Fragments in American Collections (= TBC 2, 1982) = JCS 37, 1985 S. 1-60.

HFara (aka Fara) : E. Heinrich, Fara, Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Fara und Abu Hatab (1902/3, Berlin 1931)

Hg. : Lexical series HAR.gud = imru = ballu (in: MSL 5-11)

HH : L. Laroche, Les hiéroglyphes hittites (Paris l960)

Hh. : Lexical series HAR.ra = hubullu (= MSL 5-11)

HHL : J. Hawkins/A. Morpurgo-Davies/G. Neumann, Hittite Hieroglyphs and Luwian: New Evidence for the Connection (= NAWG 1973, 6, 1974)

HippHeth : A. Kammenhuber, Hippologica Hethitica (Wiesbaden 1961)

Hippologica (aka A. Salonen, Hippologica) : A. Salonen, Hippologica Accadica (Helsinki 1956), (= AASF B 100)

Hiring : M. Weitemeyer, Some Aspects of the Hiring of Workers in the Slppar Region in the Time of Hammurabi

Hirose Collection : T. Gomi, Y. Hirose and K. Hirose, Neo-Sumerian Administrative Texts of the Hirose Collection

hist. : historical (texts)

Historia Mathematica : Historia Mathematica (Toronto)

HitG (aka HG) : J. Friedrich, Die hethitischen Gesetze (Leiden, 19591, 19712)

Hitt. : Hittite

HKL : R. Borger, Handbuch der Keilschriftliteratur (Berlin 1967-75)

HKM : S. AIp, Masat-Höyük'te bulunan civi yazili Hitit tabletleri/Hittite Cuneiform Tablets from Masat-Höyük (= TTKY VI/34, 1991).

HLC (aka Barton Haverford) : G. Barton, Haverford Library Collection of Cuneiform Tablets (Philadelphia 1905-1914); collations by T. Maeda, ASJ 2,197ff.

HMA (aka Lowie; LM) : sigla of the Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California at Berkeley

Hoe and Plow : lit. comp.; ms. M. Civil

Holma-Salonen Cuneiform Tablets : H. Holma and A. Salonen, Some Cuneiform Tablets from the Time of the Third Ur Dynasty (= StOr 9/1)

Home of the Fish : lit. comp.; M. Civil, Iraq 23, 154ff.

House Most High : A.R. George, House Most Hlgh: The Temples of Ancient Mesopotamia (= MC 5)

HPN : E. Huber, die Personennamen in den Keilschrifturkunden aus der Zeit der Könige von Ur und Nisin. Assyr. Bibliothek, vol. 21. (Leipzig, 1907)

HRT : A. Goetze, The Hittite Ritual of Tunnawi (= AOS 14, 1938)

HS : Tablet siglum of the Hilprecht Collection in Jena

HSA : L. W. King, A History of Sumer and Akkad (London 1910)

HSAO : Heidelberger Studien zum Alten Orient (vol. 1 [= Fs. A. Falkenstein] Wiesbaden 1967, vol.2 ff. Heidelberg 1988 ff.)

HSM : tablets in the collections of the Harvard Semitic Museum

HSS : Harvard Semitic Series (Cambridge, Mass. 1912 ff.)

HT : L.W. King, Hittite Texts in the Cuneiform Character from Tablets in the British Museum (London 1920)

HTR : H. Otten, Hethitische Totenrituale (= DAWIfO 37, 1958)

HTS : tablets from the Hartford Theological Seminary Collection texts now at Yale and Andrews Universities

HUCA : Hebrew Union College Annual (Cincinnati 1924 ff.); Supp. = Supplement (1976 ff.)

Hurr. : Hurrian

HW (aka HethWb., HWb.) : J. Friedrich, Hethititsches Wörterbuch (Heidelberg 1952-1954); 1-3 Ergänzungsheft (Heidelberg 1957-1966)

HW2 (aka HethWb., HWb2) : J. Friedrich/A. Kammenhuben, Hethitisches Wörterbuch (Heidelberg 1975 ff.)

Hymn to Nintu : lit. comp.; C. Wilcke, AS 20, 235ff. and dupls.

Hymn to the Ekur : lit. comp.; S.N. Kramer, RSO 32, 95ff.

HZL : C. Ruster and E. Neu, Hethitisches Zeichenlexikon (Harrassowitz Verlag 1989)

I

i.e. : that is

IAK : E. Ebeling, B. Meissner, E. F. Weidner, Die Inschriften der Altassyrischen Könige (Leipzig, Verlag Von Quelle & Meyer, 1926)

IAS : R. D. Biggs, Inscriptions from Tell Abu Salabikh (= OIP 99, 1974)

IB : Ishan Bahriyat, Isin excavation sigla

Ibbisin lff. : royal inscr.; Steible NBW 2, 279ff.

Ibbisin to Ishbierra : letter; S. N. Kramer, OECT 5, 15f.

Ibbisin to Puzurnumushda : letter; A. Falkenstein, ZA 49, 59ff.

IBoT : Istanbul Arkeoloji Müzelerinde bulunan Bogazköy tabletleri (Istanbul 1944 ff.)

ICC : H. A. Layard, lnscriptions in the Cuneiform Character from Assyrian Monuments (London 1852)

ICK : Inscriptions cunéiformes du Kultépé, I: B. Hrozny; II: L. Matous (Prag 1952/1962)

Iddatum to Sumutarra : letter; P. Michalowski, JCS 30, 118

Iddindagan 1 : (RIME 4,22: Iddindagan 1)

Iddindagan 2 : (StOr 49, Sf.)

Iddindagan 3 : (StOr 49,7)

Iddindagan Hymn B : lit. comp.; Römer SKIZ 209ff.

Iddindagan lff. : royal inscr.; I. Karki, StOr 49, 5ff.

Iddindagan seal a : (StOr 49, 5; RIME 4: Iddindagan 2001)

Iddindagan to Sinillatum : letter; Ali Letters 67ff. B:3

Ideogramme : B. Meissner, Seltene assyrische Ideogramme

IEJ : Israel Exploration Journal (Jerusalem 1950 ff.)

IES : tablets in the collections of the Institute of Egyptian Studies (Univ. of Cambridge)

IF : Indogermanische Forschungen (Straßburg/Leipzig/Berlin 1892 ff.)

Igituh : lex. series igi-du8 = tamartu

Igituh Short Version : lex. series; B. Landsberger, AfO 18, 81ff.

Igmilsin to Nudimmudsiga : letter; PBS 12, 32

IHH : B. Hrozny, Les inscriptions hittites hiéroglyphiques (Prague 1933)

ILN : Illustrated London News (London 1842 ff.)

Ilumgamll 1 : royal mscr.; I. Kärkl, StOr 49, 189f.

IM : Museum siglum of the Iraq Museum in Baghdad

IMGULA : Walter Sommerfeld, ed.

imp. : Imperative

IMT : Donbaz, Veysel & Matthew W. Stolper, Istanbul Murašû texts. Istanbul 1997: Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Istanbul

Inanna and Bilulu : lit. comp.; Th. Jacobsen and S.N. Kramer, JNES 12, 160ff.

Inanna and Ebih : lit. comp.; ms. B. Eichler

Inanna and Enki : lit. comp.; G. Farber-Flugge, Studia Pohl 10

Inanna and Iddindagan : lit. comp.; Römer SKIZ 128ff; D. Reisman, JCS 25, 185ff.

Inanna and Shukalletuda : lit. comp.; K. Volk, Inanna und Sukaletuda

Inanna's Descent : lit. comp.; W.R. Sladek, Inanna's Descent to the Netherworld (diss., Johns Hopkins Univ.)

Inannaka to Nintinugga : letter-prayer; Ali Letters 137ff. B:17

incant. : incantation(s)

Incantation against Gall : lit. comp.; P. Mlchalowski, ZA 71, lff.

Incantation to Utu : lit. comp., B. Alster, Acta Sum 13 27ff

inf. : Infinitive

Inimenlilla to a King : letter; UET 6/2, 173 i 5ff.

Iniminanna to Enlilmassu : letter; Ali Letters 149ff. B:l9

Iniminanna to Lugalibila : letter; Ali Letters 153ff. B:20

Inninshagurra : lit. comp.; A. Sjöberg, ZA 65, 161ff.

inscr. : inscription(s)

Instructions of Shuruppak : lit. comp.; B. Alster, Mesopotamia 2, and dupls. see B. Alster, Mesopotamia 3, 137ff.; Civil, JNES 43 , 281ff.

Instructions of Urninurta : lit comp.; B. Alster, OrNS 60, 141ff.

interlin. : Interlinear

IOS : Israel oriental studies. [Tel Aviv] Faculty of Humanities, Tel Aviv University

Iran : Iran. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies (London 1963 ff.)

IrAnt : Iranica Antiqua (Leiden 1961 ff.)

Iraq : Iraq (British School of Archaeology in Iraq) (London 1934 ff.)

IRSA : E. Sollberger/J. R. Kupper, Inscriptions royales sumériennes et akkadiennes (Paris 1971)

ISET : S. Kramer/M. Çig/H. Kizilyay, Istanbul Arkeoloji Müzelerinde bulunan Sumer edebi tablet ve parcalari (Sumerian Literary Tablets and Fragments in the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul), I/Il, (Ankara 1969/1976)

Ishbierra 2 : royal inscr.; StOr 49, 2; RIME 4: Isbierra 1

Ishbierra and Kindattu : lit. comp., J. van Dijk, JCS, 30, 189ff.

Ishbierra to Ibbisin 1 : letter, Michalowski Correspondence 243ff.

Ishbierra to Ibbisin 2 : letter, S.N. Kramer, OECT 5 17ff.

IshbierraA : lit. comp.; Å.W. Sjöberg, Studies Hallo 211ff.

Ishme Dagan : M.-C. Ludwig, Untersuchungen zu den Hymnen des Ishme-Dagan von Isin

Ishmedagan 01 : (StOr 49, 8), RIME 4: Ismedagan 1)

Ishmedagan 02 : (StOr 49, 8), RIME 4: Ismedagan 2)

Ishmedagan 03 : (StOr 49, 9; RIME 4: Ismedagan 7)

Ishmedagan 04 : (StOr 49, 9, RIME 4: Ismedagan 3)

Ishmedagan 05 : (StOr 49, 10; RIME 4: Ismedagan 4)

Ishmedagan 06 : (StOr 49, 10; RIME 4: Ismedagan 11)

Ishmedagan 07 : (StOr 49, 10f.; RIME 4: Ismedagan 5)

Ishmedagan 08 : (StOr 49, 11; RIME 4: Ismedagan 13)

Ishmedagan 09 : (StOr 49, 12; RIME 4: Ismedagan 12)

Ishmedagan 10 : (StOr 49, 12; RIME 4: Ismedagan 2001)

Ishmedagan 11 : (StOr 49, 13; RIME 4: Ismedagan 10)

Ishmedagan 12 : (StOr 49, 13; RIME 4: Ismedagan 6)

Ishmedagan lff. : royal inscr.

Ishmedagan S : lit. comp.; Ludwig Isme-Dagan 87ff.

Ishmedagan seal a : (StOr 49, 13; RIME 4: Ismedagan 14)

Ishmedagan Z : lit. comp.; ms. P. Michalowski

Ishtar : W.F. Leemans, Ishtar of Lagaba and her Dress (= SLB 1/1)

Isin : B. Hrouda, Isin-Išān Baḥrīyāt : die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen (4 vols. 1977-1992)

Isin crafts : Marc van de Mieroop, Crafts in the Early Isin Period: A Study of the Isin Craft Archive from the Reigns of Isbi-Erra and Su-Illisu. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta - OLA 24 (Peeters Publishers, 1987)

ISL : Innsbrucker Sumerisches Lexikon des Instituts für Sprachen und Kulturen des Alten Orients an der Universität Innsbruck, Abt. I: Sumerisches Lexikon zu den zweisprachigen literarischen Texten; Band 1: Sumerisches Lexikon zu G. Reisner SBH

IstF (aka IstForsch.) : Istanbuler Forschungen (Berlin/Tübingen 1932 ff.)

IstM (aka IstMitt.) : Istanbuler Mitteilungen (Istanbul 1933 ff.); Beih. = Beiheft (1966 ff.)

ITT (aka FYI) : Inventaire des tablettes de Tello

Izi : lex. series izi = ishtu; MSL 13, 154ff.

J

JA : Journal asiatique (Paris 1822 ff.)

JAC : Journal of Ancient Civilizations (Changchun)

JAFA : Journal of Al-Frahedis Arts

Jagd : A. Salonen, Jagd und Jagdtiere im alten Mesopotamien (=AASF 196)

JAGS : Journal of the American Oriental Society (New Haven/Ann Arbor 1843 ff.); Suppl. = Supplement (1935 ff.)

JANEH : Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History (2014 ff.)

JANES : Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society (of Columbia University) (New York 1968/69 ff.)

JAOS : Journal of the American Oriental Society

JAS (aka JArS) : Journal of Archaeological Science (London/New York 1974 ff.)

JASH : Journal of Arabian Sciences Heritage, Baghdad University (مجلة التراث العلمي العربي)

JBCH : Journal of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies, University of Babylon (مجلة كلية التربية الأساسية للعلوم التربوية والإنسانية )

JBL : Journal of Biblical Literature (Philadelphia 1890 ff.)

JCS : Journal of Cuneiform Studies (New Haven . . . Baltimore 1947 ff.)

JCSSS : Journal of Cuneiform Studies Supplemental Series

JDAI (aka JdI) : Jahrbuch des (Kaiserlichen) Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts (Berlin 1886 ff.); Erg.-H. = Ergänzungsheft (1888 ff.)

JEA : Journal of Egyptian Archaeology (London 1914 ff.)

JEN : Joint Expedition with the Iraq Museum at Nuzi (= Publications of the Baghdad School. Texts, 1-6, Paris/Philadelphia 1927-1939)

JEOL : Jaarbericht van het Voor-Aziatisch-Egyptisch-Gezelschap (from 1945: Genootschap) Ex Oriente Lux (Leiden 1933 ff.)

Jerusalem : M. Sigrist, Inscriptions Cuneiformes Jerusalem (= Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Museum 4)

JESHO : Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient (Leiden 1958 ff.)

JFA : Journal of Field Archaeology (Boston, Mass. 1974 ff.)

JHS : Journal of Hellenic Studies (London 1880 ff.)

JIES : Journal of Indo-European Studies (Hattiesburg, Missouri 1973 ff.)

JKF (aka JKlF, AnaAra., Anadolu, Anadolu Arast., Anadolu Arastirmalari) : Jahrbuch für kleinasiatische Forschung, I-II (Heidelberg 1950/51- 1952/53) = Anadolu Arastirmalari (Bd. 1 = III und 2ff. = 2ff., Istanbul 1955/59ff.); Beiheft (1978ff.)

JMC : Le Journal des Médecines Cunéiformes (2003 ff.)

JMEOS : Journal of the Manchester Egyptian and Oriental Society (1912-1933/34)

JMS : Journal of Magan Studies Vol 1 (2006). Discontinued?

JNER : Journal of ancient Near Eastern Religions (Leiden 2001 ff.)

JNES : Journal of Near Eastern Studies (Chicago 1942 ff.)

JRAS : Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (London 1834 ff.); Suppl. = Supplement; Cent. Suppl. - Centenary Supplement (1924)

JRDH : Diyala Journal of Humanitarian Research, Diyala University (مجلة ديالى للبحوث الانسانية)

JRGS : Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (London)

JRGZ : Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, Bonn (Mainz 1954 ff.)

JSOR : Journal of the Society of Oriental Research

JSOT : Journal for the Study of the Old Testament (Sheffield 1978/79 ff.)

JSS : Journal of the Semitic Studies (Manchester 1956 ff.)

JTVI : Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute . . .(London 1865-1957)

Jubileum LB : Böhl, F. de Liagre 1938

K

K : Museum siglum of the British Museum in London (Kuyunjik)

KADP : F. Köcher, Keilschrifttexte zur assyrisch-babylonischen Drogen- und Pflanzenkunde (Berlin 1955)

Kagal : lex. series ka2-gal = abullu; MSL 13,227ff

KAH : Keilschrifttexte aus Assur historischen Inhalts (I: L. Messerschmidt, WVDOG 16, 1911; II: O. Schroeder, WVDOG 37, 1922)

KAI : H. Donner/W. Röllig, Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften (Wiesbaden 1962-64)

KAJ : E. Ebeling, Keilschrifttexte aus Assur juristischen Inhalts (= WVDOG 50, 1927)

Kalender : W. Sallaberger, Der kultische Kalender der Ur III-Zeit, 2 vols.

KAM : A. Moortgat, Die Kunst des Alten Mesopotamien (Köln 1967)

Kampfe (aka KAO) : Kampfe um den Alten Orient

KAO : P. Amiet, Die Kunst des Alten Orients (Freiburg 1977)

KAR : E. Ebeling, Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiösen Inhalts I/II (= WVDOG 28, 1919; 34, 1923)

KAV : O. Schroeder, Keilschrifttexte aus Assur verschiedenen Inhalts (= WVDOG 35, 1920)

KBo. : Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazköi (Bd. 1-22 in WVDOG, Leipzig/Berlin 1916 ff.)

Keshi Hymn : lit. comp.; G. Gragg, TCS 3. 155ff; rev ms. P. Gerardi; ED version, R.D. Biggs. ZA 61, 193ff

KEWA : M. Mayrhofer, Kurzgefaßtes etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen (Heidelberg 1956-1980)

Kish : tablets excavated at Kish, in the collections of the Ashmolean Museum (Oxford)

Kisurra : B. Kienast, FAOS 2

KL : Tablet siglum, texts from Kamid el-Loz

KlF : Kleinasiatische Forschungen, I (Weimar 1927-30)

Klio : Klio. Beiträge zur Alten Geschichte (Leipzig/Berlin 1906-1943)

KLL : Kindlers Literatur-Lexikon (Zürich 1965-1974; Munich 1974)

KMI : E. Ebeling, Keilschrifttexte medicinischen Inhalts (1922-1923)

KN : V. Haas, Der KuIt von Nerik. Ein Beitrag zur hethitischen Religionsgeschichte (= StPohl 4,1970)

Kollationen (aka Kollationen Jena) : C. Wilcke, Kollationen zu den sumerischen literarischen Texten aus Nippur in der Hilprecht-Sammlung Jena, ASAW 65/4, 1976

Königsfriedhof : H. J. Nissen, Zur Datierung des Königsfriedhofes von Ur unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Stratigraphie der Privatgräber (Bonn 1966)

Konst. : Assur tablets In the collections of the Archaeological Museums (Istanbul)

Kt (aka kt) : Inventory numbers of Kültepe texts

Ktèma (aka KTMEA) : Ktèma. Civilisations de I'Orient, de la Grèce et de Rome antiques (Straßburg 1976 ff.)

KTP : The Cappadocian Tablets in the University of Pennsylvania Museum, JSOR 11, 1927, 101-136: F. J. Stephens

KTS : Keilschrifttexte in den Antiken-Museen zu Istanbul [, Bd. 1] :J. Lewy (Konstantinopel 1926); Bd. 2: V. Donbaz (= FAOS Beih. 2, 1989)

KTU : M. Dietrich/ O. Loretz/ J. Sanmartín, Die keil-alphbetischen Texte aus Ugarit (= AOAT 24/1, 1976)

KTU2 : M. Dietrich/ O. Loretz/ J. Sanmartín, Die keil-alphbetischen Texte aus Ugarit, 2nd edition = ALASP(M) 8 (1995)

KUB : Keilschrifturkunden aus Boghazköi (Berlin 1921 ff.)

Kudurmabuk 1 : (StOr49, 140f.)

Kudurmabuk 2 : (8tOr 49, 83f.; RIME 4: Kudurmabuk 1)

Kudurmabuk 3 : (StOr 49, 83f.)

Kudurmabuk lff. : royal inscr.

Kudurmabuk seal a : (StOr 49, 83f; RIME 4: Kudurmabuk 2001)

Kudurrus : I. J. Gelb, P. Steinkeller and R.M. Whitney Jr., Earliest Land Tenure Systems in the Near East. Ancient Kudurrus (= OIP 104)

Kultische Kalender (aka B. Landsberger, Kalender) : B. Landsberger, Der Kultische Kalender der Babylonier und Assyrer (= LSS 6/1-2)

Kuninurta to a King : letter; ms. Univ. Museum

Kunstmann Gebetsbeschwörung : W. Kunstmann, Die babylonische Gebetsbeschwörung (= LSS NF 2)

Kurigalzu Inscription : royal inscr.; Sumer 4, lff.; rev. ms. M.W. Green

Kusu Hymn : lit. comp.; P. Michalowski, Studies Hallo 152ff.

KWU : N. Schneider, Die Keilschriftzeichen der Wirtschaftsurkunden von Ur III nebst ihren charakteristischen Schreibvarianten (Rom 1935)

Kyoto (aka Nakahara, Nakahara Kyoto) : Y. Nakahara, The Sumerian Tablets in the Imperial Library of Kyoto (Tokyo 1928)

Kyros-Zylinder : Kyros-Zylinder (edited by P.-R. Berger, ZA 64, 1975, pp. 192-234)

L

L : Tablet siglum of texts in the Archeological Museum in Istanbul (Lagash/Girsu)

l.e. : left edge

L'uomo : G. Pettinato, L'uomo cominci&#242; a scrivere. Iscrizioni cuneiformi della Collezione Michail (Milano 1997)

La province (aka Prov. mér.) : J.-P. Grégoire, La province meridionale de l'état de Lagash

LAK : A. Deimel, Liste der archaischen Keilschriftzeichen (= WVDOG 40, 1922)

Lamentation over Sumer and Ur : lit. comp.; P. Michalowski, The Lamentation over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur (= MC 1)

Lamentation over Ur : lit. comp.; S.N. Kramer, AS 12; rev. ms. H. Vanstiphout

Lamentations : M.E. Cohen, The Canonical Lamentations of Ancient Mesopotamia

Landfahrzeuge (aka A. Salonen, Landfahrzeuge) : A. Salonen, Die Landfahrzeuge des alten Mesopotamien (Helsinki 1951), (=AASF B 72/III)

Language of Ebla : Studies on the Language of Ebla, ed. P. Fronzaroli, Quaderni di Semitistica 13

LAOS : Leipziger Altorientalische Studien (from 2011)

LAPO : Littératures anciennes du Proche-Orient

LAS : S. Parpola, Letters from Assyrian Scholars to the Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal, I (= AGAT 5/1, 1970); II (= AGAT 5/2, 1983)

Law Collections : M. Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor

Laws of Lipiteshtar : lit. comp.; Roth Law Collections 23ff.

Laws of Urnammu : lit. comp.; Roth Law Collections 13ff.

LB : tablets in the de Liagre Bohl Collection (Leiden)

LBAT : A. Sachs/T. Pinches/ J. Strassmaier, Late Babylonian Astronomical and Related Texts (London 1955)

LDAS : Legal Documents in Ancient Societies

LE : C. Wilcke, Das Lugalbandaepos (Wiesbaden 1969)

Leather : V.E. Crawford, Terminology of the Leather Industry in Late Sumerian Times (diss., Yale Univ.)

Lenormant Choix : F. Lenormant, Choix de textes cunéiformes (1873-1875)

Letter from PN to a King(?) : letter; ISET 2, 117 Ni.4164 rev.

Letter from PN to Enlilbani : letter; ISET 2, 119 Ni.4326+ 9ff.

Letter from PN to Nanna : letter-prayer; A. Falkenstem, AnBibl 12, 69ff.; A. Sjöberg Mondgott 104ff.

Letter from PN to Nininsina : letter-prayer, SEM 74

Letter to Ninshubur : letter-prayer; C.B.F. Walker and S.N. Kramer, Iraq 44, 78ff.

Letter to Zimrilim : letter; D. Charpin, Rencontre 35, 7ff.

Letters (aka LEM) : P. Michalowski, Letters from Early Mesopotamia, by Piotr Michalowski, edited by Erica Reiner (Writings from the Ancient World, vol. 3, Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, 1993)

Levant : Levant. Journal of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem (London 1969 ff.)

lex. : lexical (texts)

LexAe (aka LexAe., LexÄ) : Lexikon der Ägyptologie (Wiesbaden 1975-92)

Lexical : lexical reference(s)

LFBD : T. Fish, Letters of the First Babylonian Dynasty

LIH : L. King, The Letters and Inscriptions of Hammurabi (London 1889-1900)

LIMC : Lexicon iconographicum mythologicae classicae (Zurich 1981 ff.)

Lingua di Ebla : La Lingua di Ebla, ed. L. Cagni

Lipiteshtar 01 : (StOr 49, 15f.; RIME 4: Lipiteshtar 1)

Lipiteshtar 02 : (8tOr 49, 16; RIME 4: Lipiteshtar 4)

Lipiteshtar 03 : (StOr 49, 17; RIME 4: Lipiteshtar 5)

Lipiteshtar 04 : (StOr 49, 18, RIME 4: Lipiteshtar 6)

Lipiteshtar 06 : (StOr 49, 20, RIME 4: not included)

Lipiteshtar 07 : (StOr 49, 21f.; RIME 4: Lipiteshtar 8)

Lipiteshtar 11 : (RIME 4, 48f.: Lipiteshtar 2)

Lipiteshtar 12 : (RIME 4, 59f.: Lipiteshtar 7)

Lipiteshtar 1ff. : royal inscr.

Lipiteshtar A : lit. comp.; Römer SKIZ 29ff.; rev. ms. Univ. Museum

Lipiteshtar and the Plow : lit. comp.; ms. M. Civil

Lipiteshtar B : lit. comp.; H. Vanstiphout, JCS 30 33ff

Lipiteshtar C : lit. comp.; Römer SKIZ 10ff.

Lipiteshtar D : lit. comp.; Römer SKIZ 6ff.

Lipiteshtar seal a : (StOr 49, 22: Lipiteshtar 8; RIME 4: Lipiteshtar 2001)

Lipiteshtar seal b : (8tOr 49, 22: Lipiteshtar 9; RIME 4: Lipiteshtar 2002)

Lipiteshtar seal c : (StOr 49, 23: Lipiteshtar 10; RIME 4: Lipiteshtar 2003)

Lipiteshtar seal d : (RIME 4: Lipiteshtar 2004)

Lipiteshtar to Nannakiag : letter; Ali Letters 76ff. B:5

Lisin's Lament : lit. comp.; CBS 8508 (STVC 121) and dupl.

lit. : literary (texts)

LKA : L. Ebeling, Literarische Keilschrifttexte aus Assur (Berlin 1953)

LKU : A. Falkenstein, Literarische Keilschrifttexte aus Uruk (Berlin 1931)

LoC : Library of Congress

loc. : locative

loc.-term. : locative-terminative

Love Songs : Y. Sefati, Love Songs in Sumerian literature (diss., Bar- Ilan Univ.)

LSS : Leipziger Semitistische Studien (Leipzig 1903- 1920); NF = Neue Folge (1931-1932)

LSU : P. Michalowski, The Lamentation over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur (= MC 1)

LTBA : Die lexikalischen Tafelserien der Babylonier und Assyrer, Bd. I: L. Matous; Bd. II: W. von Soden (Berlin 1933)

Lu : lex. series lu2 = sha; MSL 12, 87ff.

Lu'utu lff. : royal inscr.; Steible NBW 2, 343f.

Luckenbill Adab : D. Luckenbill, Inscriptions from Adab (= 0IP 14)

Lugal-TAR-si of Kish : royal inscr.; Steible ABW 2, 218f.

Lugalannemundu Inscr. : royal inscr.; H. Guterbock, ZA 42, 40ff.; new ms. P. Michalowski

Lugalbanda Epic I : lit. comp.; ms. S. Cohen, rev. by Å.W. Sjöberg; W.W. Hallo, JAOS 103, 165ff.

Lugalbanda Epic II : lit. comp.; C. Wilcke, Das Lugalbandacpos; R. Falkowitz, JAOS 103, 103ff.; rev. ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

Lugalbandaepos : C. Wilcke, Das Lugalbandaepos, 1969

Lugale (aka van Dijk Lugale) : lit. comp.; J. van Dijk, Lugal ud me-lam-BI; Sippar Version = F.N.H. Al-Rawi, Iraq 57 (1995): 199-223

Lugalibila to Giriniisag : letter; ms. Univ. Museum

Lugaliblla to Lugalnisag : letter; J. Nougayrol, Ugaritica 5, 23ff.; rev. ms. M. Civil

Lugalkigmnedudu lff. : royal inscr.; Steible ABW 2, 298ff.

Lugalkisalsi lff. : royal inscr.; Steible ABW 2,

Lugalnisag to a King 1 : letter; Ali Letters 85ff. B:7

Lugalnisag to a King 2 : letter; Ali Letters 92ff. B:8

Lugalnisag to Enlilmassu : letter; Ali Letters 130ff. B:16

Lugalzagesi lff. : royal inscr.; Steible ABW 2, 310ff.

Lullaby : lit. comp.; S.N. Kramer, Studi in onore di Edoardo Volterra 6, 191ff, and dupls.; rev. ms. A. Cavlgneaux

Luninurta to Inamlaandulduga : letter; M.E. Cohen, WO 9, I0ff.

Lushaga : royal inscr.; Steible NBW 2,

M

MA : Middle Assyrian

MAD : I.J. Gelb, Materials for the Assyrian Dictionary (Chicago 1952- 1970)

mag. : Magical

MAG : Mittelassyrische Gesetze

MAH : Museum siglum of the Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, Geneva

Malku : Akk. lex. series malku = sharru

MAM : A. Parrot, Mission archéologique de Mari, I (= BAH 65, 1956); II (= BAH 68- 70, 1958/59); III (= BAH 86, 1967)

Man and his God : lit. comp., S.N. Kramer, VT Suppl. 3; rev. ms. J. Klein

Manchester Memoirs : Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society

Manchester Tammuz : lit. comp.; B. Alster, Acta Sum 14, lff.

Mantique : A. Boissier, Mantique Babylonienne et Mantique Hittite (Paris 1935)

Manuel2 : Ch. Fossey, Manuel d'assyriologie, Bd. II: Évolution des cunéiformes (Paris 1926)

MAO : G. Contenau, Manuel d'Archéologie Orientale (Paris 1927-47)

MAOG : Mitteilungen der Altorientalischen Gesellschaft

Maqlu : Knut L. Tallqvist, Die assyrische Beschwörungsserie Maqlu (1894)

MARI : Mari, Annales de Recherches Interdisciplinaires (Paris 1982 ff.)

Marriage of Mardu : lit. comp.; SEM 58; J. Klein, Sumerian Gods 110-116

masc. : Masculine

math. : mathematical (texts)

MatKul : Izvestija Rossijskoj Akademii Istorii Material'noj Kul'tury

Maul Ershahunga : S.M. Maul, 'Herzberuhigungsklagen': Die sumerisch-akkadischen Ershahunga-Gebete

Mayr 1997 : R. Mayr, The Seal Impressions of Ur III Umma, Disseratation, 1997

MB : Middle Babylonian

MBGT (aka MGBT) : lex. series; Middle Babylonian Grammatical Texts, MSL SS 1, 72-91

MBI (aka Barton MBI) : G.A. Barton, Miscellaneous Babylonian Inscriptions, I (New Haven 1918)

MBLETU : O. R. Gurney, The Middle Babylonian Legal and Economic Texts from Ur (British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 1983)

MC : Mesopotamian Civilizations (Winona Lake, Indiana)

MC 3 (aka Adoption in Nippur) : E.C. Stone and D.I. Owen, Adoption in Old Babylonian Nippur and the Archive of Mannum-mesu-lissur (= MC 3)

MC 4 (aka LAT, Legal and Administrative Texts) : P. Steinkeller, with hand copies by J. N. Postgate, Third-Millennium Legal and Administrative Texts in the Iraq Museum, Baghdad (= MC 4)

MCAAS : Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences

MCS : Manchester Cuneiform Studies (Manchester 1951 ff.)

MCT : O. Neugebauer and A. Sachs, Mathematical Cuneiform Texts (= AOS 29)

MD : tablets in the collections of the Missionmuseum der Franziskaner zu Dorsten in Westfalen

MDAI (aka MDAIK, DAI) : Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abt. Kairo (Mainz 1956 ff.)

MDI : Memoires de la Delegation Archeologique en Iran

MDOG : Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-gesellschaft zu Berlin (Berlin 1898 ff.)

MDP : Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse (Paris 1900 ff.); Bd.29, 1943 ff. also cited as MDAI = Mémoires de la Délégation Archéologique en Iran

MEA : R. Labat, Manuel d'épigraphie akkadienne (6th ed. Paris 1988)

med. : Medical

MEE : Materiali epigrafici di Ebla (Naples 1979 ff.)

Meier Maqlu : G. Meier, Die assyrische Beschwörungssammlung Maqlû, Berlin 1937

Meissner Supplement : B. Meissner, Supplement zu den assyrischen Wörterbüchern, Leiden 1898

Melanges Birot : Miscellanea Babylonica: Melanges offerts a Maurice Birot

Melanges Kupper : De la Babylonie a la Syrie, en passant par Mari: Melanges offerts a Monsieur J.-R. Kupper a l'occasion de son 70e anniversaire

Melanges Limet : Tablettes et images aux pays de Sumer et d'Akkad: Melanges offerts a Monsieur H. Limet, Association pour la Promotion de l'Histoire et de l'Archeologie Orientales Memoires no. 1

Mem. Finkelstein : Essays on the Ancient Near East in Memory of J.J. Finkelstein (= MCAAS 19)

Menologies : S. Langdon, Babylonian Menologies and the Semitic Calendars

Menschenbild : G. Pettinato, Das altorientalische Menschenbild und die sumerischen und akkadischen Schöpfungsmythen

Mes (aka Mesop., Mesopotamia) : Mesopotamia. Rivista di Archeologia . . . (Turin 1966 ff.)

Mesag : S.J. Bridges, The Mesag archive: A study of Sargonic society and economy (diss., Yale Univ., 1981)

Mesannepada : royal inscr.; Steible ABW 2, 272f.

Mesilim of Kish : royal inscr.; Steible ABW 2, 215ff.

Mesop. Law : M. Roth, Scholastic Tradition and Mesopotamian Law (diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania)

Mesopotamia (aka Mes.) : Mesopotamia. Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology (Copenhagen 1972 ff.)

Mesopotamia : Revista di archeologia a cure del Centro Ricerche Archeologiche e Scavi di Turno per il Medio Oriente e l'Asia, University of Turin (Turin)

Mesopotamien : E. Strommenger, Fünf Jahrtausende Mesopotamien, Aufnahmen von M. Hirmer (Munich 1962)

Message of Ludingirra : llt. comp.; M. Clvll, JNES 23, lff.; M. Cig and S.N. Kramer, Belleten 40, 403ff.; ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

Message of Ludingirra Ras Shamra : J. Nougayrol, Ugaritica 5,310ff.; rev. ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

MesZL : see MZL

Metal (aka Limet Métal, Travail du métal) : H. Limet, Le travail du metal au pays de Sumer au temps de la IIIe dynastie d'Ur (Brussels 1976)

MFA : Museum siglum of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

MHET : Mesopotamian History and Environment: Texts

mill. : Millennium

MIO : Mitteilungen des Instituts für Orientforschung (Berlin 1953 ff.)

Mis pi : ritual series; ms. C.B.F. Walker

Misc. Assyrian Texts : S.A. Smith, Miscellaneous Assyrian Texts of the British Museum

MiscEbl : Miscellanea Eblaitica (= QuadSem 15 ff., 1988 ff.)

MJ (aka Museum Journal) : Museum Journal (Univ. Museum, Univ. of Pennsylvania)

MKT : O. Neugebauer, Mathematische Keilschrifttexte (Berlin 1936/37)

MLC : Morgan Library Collection, siglum of the Yale Babylonian Collection, New Haven

MLVS : Mededeelingen uit de Leidsche Verzameling van Spijkerschrift-Inscripties (Amsterdam 1933-36)

MM : tablets in the collections of the Abbey of Montserrat (Barcelona)

MMA Guide : Crawford, Vaughn Emerson, et al., Ancient Near Eastern Art: Guide To the Collections (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1966)

MMB : Bulletin of the Museum of Mediterranean and Near Eastern Antiquities / Medelhavsmuseet Bulletin (Stockholm 1961-1998)

MMEW (aka Mystical) : A. Livingstone, Mystical and Mythological Explanatory Works of Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars (Oxford, 1986)

MMFM : Medelhavsmuseet. Focus on the Mediterranean (Stockholm 2004-)

MN : month name

mng. : meaning

Möbel (aka A. Salonen, Möbel) : A. Salonen, Die Möbel des alten Mesopotamien nach sumerisch-akkadischen Quellen (Helsinki 1963), (= AASF B 127)

Model Contracts : W. R. Bodine, How Mesopotamian scribes learned to write legal documents: A study of Sumerian Model Contracts, 2014

Mondgott (aka MNS) : A. Sjöberg, Der Mondgott Nanna-Suen

Monkey : letter; M. Powell, ZA 68, 168ff.

MonOT (aka Monuments) : I. M. Price et al, The Monuments and the Old Testament (Philadelphia 1958)

Moon-God : M. Hall, A Study of the Sumerian Moon-God, Nanna/Suen (diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania)

MP : Monuments et memoires publies par l'Academie des Inscriptions et des Belles-Lettres (Fondation Eugene Piot)

MRWH : H.P.H. Petschow, Mittelbabylonische Rechts- und Wirtschaftsurkunden der Hilprechtsammlung in Jena (Berlin 1974)

MS : Melammu Symposium

MS 9 : Fink, S. & Rollinger, R. (eds.) 2018, Conceptualising Past, Present and Future. Proceedings of the Melammu Project Held in Helsinki/Tartu May 18-24 2015. Ugarit, Münster.

ms(s). : manuscript(s)

Msk. : Tablet siglum of texts from Meskene

MSKH (aka Brinkman MSKH) : J. A. Brinkman, Materials and Studies for Kassite History (Chicago 1976)

MSL : Materialien zum sumerischen Lexikon/Materials for the Sumerian Lexicon (Rom 1937 ff.); SS = Supplementary Series (1, 1986)

MSLF : S. Lieberman, Manual of Sumerian Legal Forms (unpubl. ms.)

MSS : Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft (Munich 1952 ff.)

MSVO : Materialien zu den frühen Schriftzeugnissen des Vorderen Orients (Berlin 1991 ff.)

MtHolyAQ : Mary Inda Hussey (1918) Babylonian Tablets from Mount Holyoke College. Concord, N.H.

MUL.APIN : MUL.APIN: An Astronomical Compendium in Cuneiform. Hermann Hunger and David Pingree. AfO Beih. 24 (Horn, Austria, 1989)

Museum Monograph (aka UnivMusMonograph, UniversMusMonograph, University Museum Monograph) : Monograph of the Univ. Museum, Univ. of Pennsylvania

Musik : H. Hartmann, Die Musik der sumerischen Kultur (Frankfurt 1960)

MUSJ : Mélanges (de la Faculté Orientale) de l'Université Saint-Joseph (Beiruth 1906 ff.)

MVAG (aka MVAeG) : Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen (ab 1922: Vorderasiatisch-Agyptischen) Gesellschaft (Berlin/Leipzig 1896 ff.)

MVN : Materiali per il vocabulario neosumerico (Rom 1974 ff.)

MVS : Münchener vorderasiatische Studien (Munich/ Vienna 1977 ff.)

MW : tablets in the Missionshaus Werl in Westfalen

Mycenaean : Alexander Uchitel, Mycenaean and Near Eastern economic archives, 1985

MZL : R. Borger, Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon (AOAT 305; Ugarit-Verlag 2003)

N

N : Museum siglum of the University Museum, Philadelphia (Nippur)

N-T : field numbers of tablets excavated at Nippur (In Chicago and Baghdad)

NA : Neo-Assyrian

Nabienlil to a King : letter; ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

Nabienlil to his Colleagues : letter; ISET 2, 121 Ni.4491

Nabienlil to Sillieshtar : letter; ISET 1, 126 Ni.972 and dupls. VAS 17, 44 ii 28'-iii 1 and UM 29-13-520; ms. M. Civil

NABU : Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires (Paris 1987 ff.); cf. Mémoires de NABU (1992 ff.), Cahiers de NABU (1990 ff.)

NALK : Th. Kwasman, Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents in the Kouyunjik Collection of the British Museum (= StPohl SM 14, 1988)

Nammahm of Lagas lff. : roval mscr., Stelble NBW 1, 374ff.

Nanna's Journey to Nippur : lit. comp.; A.J. Ferrara, Studia Pohl SM 2

Nanna-Suen : lit. comp.; A. Sjöberg, Der Mondgott Nanna-Suen …, I (Stockholm 1960)

Nannakiag to Lipiteshtar : letter; Ali Letters 71ff. B:4

Nannamansum to Nininsina : letter-prayer; TCL 16, 60 and dupl.

Nannamansum to Rimsin : letter; OECT 5, 31

Nanshe and the Birds : lit. comp.; ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

Nanshe Hymn : lit. comp.; W. Heimpel, JCS 33 65ff.; rev. ms. Å.W. Sjöberg,

NAPR : Northern Akkad Project Reports (= Mesopotamian History and Environment, Series I; Ghent)

NARGD : J. N. Postgate, Neo-Assyrian Royal Grants and Decrees (Studia Pohl, Series Maior 1, Rome 1969)

Nasha Diss. : Nelson, S.B., Nasha: A Study of Administrative Texts of the Third Dynasty of Ur, Ph. D. Diss. University of Minnesota 1972

NAT : S. Parpola, Neo-Assyrian Toponyms (= AOAT 6, 1970)

NATN : D. l. Owen, Neo-Sumerian Archival Texts primarily from Nippur (Winona Lake 1982)

NatPhen : D.J.W. Meijer (ed.), Natural Phenomena (= Fs. M.N. van Loon, Amsterdam 1992)

Nautica (aka A. Salonen, Nautica) : A. Salonen, Nautica Babyloniaca. Eine lexikalische und kulturgeschichtliche Untersuchung (Helsinki 1942), (= StOr 11.1)

NAWG : Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. Phil-hist. Klasse (Göttingen)

NB : Neo-Babylonian

NB Stone List : lex. text, MSL 10, 65ff.

NBC : Nies Babylonian Collection, siglum of the Yale Babylonian Collection, New Haven

NBDM : Neo-Babylonian Documents in the University of Michigan Collection (Ellen Moore)

NBGT : lex. series, Neo-Babylonian Grammatical Texts; MSL 4,

Nbk. : J. N. Strassmaier, Inschriften von Nabuchodonosor, König von Babylon (= BT 5-6, Leipzig 1889)

Nbn. : J. N. Strassmaier, Inschriften von Nabonidus, König von Babylon (= BT 1-4, Leipzig 1889)

NBW (aka Steible NBW) : H. Steible, Die neusumerischen Bau- und Weihinschriften (=FAOS 9)

NCBT : Siglum of the Newell Collection of Babylonian Tablets (now Yale University, New Haven)

nd : no (publication) date

ND : field numbers of tablets excavated at Nimrud

NE : P. Haupt, Das babylonische Nimrodepos (Assyriologische Bibliothek 3, Leipzig 1891)

Nebraska : N. Forde, Nebraska Cuneiform Texts of the Sumerian Ur III Dynasty

Nergal : J. Bollenrucher, Gebete und Hymnen an Nergal

Nergal Hymn : lit. comp.; H. Zimmern, ZA 31, 111ff.; rev. ms. M. Roth

Nergal's Ax : lit. comp., TMH NF 4, 45 and dupls.; H. Behrens, Studies Sachs 27ff.

NESt. : University of California Publications. Near Eastern Studies (Berkeley)

NF : Neue Folge

NFT (aka Tello) : G. Cros et al., Nouvelles fouilles de Tello (Paris 1910)

NG (aka Gerichtsurkunden, NGU, NSGU) : A. Falkenstein, Die neusumerischen Gerichtsurkunden (= ABAW NF 39, 40, 54, 1956-57)

NH (aka Noms) : E.Laroche, Les noms des Hittites (Paris 1966)

Ni. : Museum siglum of the Archaeological Museum, Istanbul (Nippur)

Nigga : lex. series nig2-GA = makkuru, MSL 13, 91ff.

Nik (aka DV 3/II) : M.V. Nikol'skij, Drevnosti Vostocnyja, III/2 (St. Petersburg 1908), Dokumenty . . .iz sobraniia N.P. LiLhacheva, (= Nik 1); collations by M. Powell, Acta Sum 3, 125ff.; G. Selz, FAOS 15/1; Drevnosti Vostocnyja, V (Moskau 1915), Dokumenty . . . iz sobraniia N.P. Likhacheva, (= Nik 2)

Ninegalla Hymn : lit. comp.; H. Behrens, FAOS 21, 1998

Ningishzida Hymn A : lit. comp.; Å.W. Sjöberg, StOr 46, 301ff.

Ningishzida Hymn B : lit. comp.; Å.W. Sjöberg, StOr 46, 305ff.

Ningishzida Hymn C : lit. comp.; Å.W. Sjöberg, StOr 129ff.

Ninkasi Hymn : lit. comp., M. Civil, Studies Oppenheim 67ff.

Ninmesharra : lit. comp.; W.W. Hallo and J. van Dijk, YNER 3; rev. ms. H. Behrens; Zgoll, AOAT 246

Ninshatapada to Rimsin : letter; W.W. Hallo, Etudes Garelli 377ff.; rev. ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

Nintinugga's Dog : lit. comp.; Ali Letters 144ff. B:18

Ninurta and the Turtle : lit. comp.; B. Alster, JCS 24, 120ff.

Ninurta's Fields : lit. comp.; ms. A.J. Ferrara

Ninurta's Journey to Eridu : lit. comp.; Reisman, JCS 24, 3ff.; lines quoted according to copy in STVC 34

Nippur Lament : lit. comp.; S.J. Tinney, The Nippur Lament (= 0PBF 16)

Nippur Neighborhoods : E. Stone, Nippur Neighborhoods (= SAOC 44)

NippurTrial : lit. comp.; Th. Jacobsen, AnBibl 12, 130ff.; ms. S.J. Lieberman

Nisaba : Studi Assiriologici Messinesi (Messina 2002ff.)

Nisaba and Enki : lit. comp.; W.W. Hallo, Rencontre 17, 116ff., rev. ms. P. Michalowski

Nisaba Hymn : lit. comp.; D. Reisman, AOAT 25, 357ff.; rev. ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

no(s). : number(s)

Nomades : J.-R. Kupper, Les nomades en Mésopotamie au temps des rois Mari (Paris 1957)

NP (aka NBPf.) : H. Petschow, Neubabylonisches Pfandrecht (Berlin 1956)

NPN : I. Gelb/P. Purves/A. MacRae, Nuzi Personal Names (= OIP 57, 1943)

NRV : San Nicolo/A. Ungnad, Neubabylonische Rechts- und Verwaltungsurkunden (Leipzig 1935/ 1937; Gl. = Glossar)

NRVN : M. Çig/H. Kizilyay, Neusumerische Rechts- und Verwaltungsurkunden aus Nippur, I (Ankara 1965)

NS : new series; Nova Series

NTSS (aka NTS[shin]) : R. Jestin, Nouveaux textes sumériens de Shuruppak (Paris 1957)

Nungal Hymn : lit. comp.; Å.W. Sjöberg, AfO 24, 19f.; Å.W. Sjöberg, JCS 29, 3ff.

Nuradad 1 : (StOr 49, 50; RIME 4: Nuradad 5)

Nuradad 2 : (StOr 49, 50)

Nuradad 3 : (StOr 49, 51)

Nuradad 4 : (StOr 49, 53)

Nuradad 5 : (RIME 4, 144f.: Nuradad 7)

Nuradad 6 : (RIME 4, 146: Nuradad 6)

Nuradad 7 : (StOr 49, 56; RIME 4: Nuradad 1)

Nuradad lff. : royal inscr.

Nuradad seals a-m : (StOr 49, 54-56; RIME 4: Nuradad 2001-2013)

NYPL (aka New York Library; TCNY; PIOL 19) : H. Sauren, Les Tablettes Cuneiformes de l'Epoque d'Ur de la New York Public Library

O

O : Museum sigla: Antiquités (orientales), Musée du Cinquantenaire

OAAS : Old Assyrian archives studies (Netherlands)

OAC (aka OrAntColl.) : Orientis Antiqui Collectio (Rome)

OACC : M. Larsen, The Old Assyrian City-State and its Colonies (Mesopotamia 4, 1976)

OACTA : J. G. Dercksen, The Old Assyrian Copper Trade in Anatolia (Istanbul-Leiden 1996)

OAIC : I. J. GeIb, Old Akkadian Inscriptions in Chicago Natural History Museum (Chicago 1955)

OAkk : Old Akkadian period

OB : Old Babylonian period

OB Contracts : E. Stone, Old Babylonian Contracts from Nippur

OB Lu : lex. series; Old Babylonian recensions of Lu; MSL 12, 151ff.

OBGT : lex. series; Old Babylonian Grammatical Texts; MSL 4, 47ff

OBLA : R. M. Whiting, Old Babylonian Letters from Tell Asmar; AS 22 (1987)

OBO : Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis (Freiburg Sweitzerland 1973 ff.); Series archaeologica (1980 ff.)

OB Temple Records (aka OBTR; Lau; OTR) : R. Lau, Old Babylonian Temple Records (= Columbia University Oriental Studies 3, New York 1906, reprint 1966)

OBTI (aka Ishchali) : S. Greengus, Old Babylonian Tablets from Ishchali and Vicinity (Istanbul 1979)

OBTR : St. Dalley, C. Walker, J. Hawkins, Old Babylonian Texts from Tell al Rimah (Hertford 1976)

obv. : obverse

occ(s). : occasion(s), occasionally

OECT : Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Texts (Oxford 1923 ff.)

OeLZ (aka ÖLZ) : Österreichische Lehrerzeitung

OIC : Oriental Institute Communications (Chicago 1922 ff.)

OIP : Oriental Institute Publications (Chicago 1924 ff.)

OJA (aka OxfJA) : Oxford Journal of Archaeology (Oxford)

OLA : Orientalia Lovaniensia analecta (Leuven 1975 ff.)

Old Man : lit. comp.; B. Alster, Mesopotamia 3, 90ff.

OLP : Orientalia Lovaniensia periodica (Leuven 1970 ff.)

OMRO : Oudheidkundige Mededelingen uit het Rijksmuseum van Oudheden te Leiden

OLZ : Orientalistische Literaturzeitung (Berlin 1898 ff.)

Onomastikon : V.V. Struve, Onomastika rannedinasticheskogo Lagasha

Ontario (aka Sigrist Ontario) : M. Sigrist, Neo-Sumerian texts from the Royal Ontario Museum

OPBF : Occasional Publications of the Babylonian Fund, vols. 1-8 (Philadelphia 19 . . ff.), succeeded by OPKF, vol. 9ff.

Opfermaterie : F. Blome, Die Opfermaterie in Babylonien und Israel, I. Teil, SSAOI 4 (Rome 1934)

OPKF (aka OPSNKF) : Occasional Publications of the Samuel Noah Kramer Fund, vol. 9ff. (Philadelphia 1995ff.), succeeds OPBF vols. 1-8

Oppenheim Glass : A. L. Oppenheim, Glass and Glassmaking in Ancient Mesopotamia, 1970

OrAnt : Oriens Antiquus (Rome 1962 ff.)

Orient : Orient. Report of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan (Tokyo 1960 ff.)

Orlinsky Vol. : Eretz-Israel 16

OrNS (aka Or.) : Orientalia, NS = Nova Series (1932 ff.)

OrSP (aka Or.) : Orientalia, SP = Series Prior (Rome 1920-1930)

OrSu (aka OrSuec) : Orientalia Suecana (Uppsala)

OSP : A. Westenholz, Old Sumerian and Old Akkadian Texts in Philadelphia Chiefly from Nippur, OSP 1 (= BiMes. 1, 1975), OSP 2 (= Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications 3, Copenhagen 1987)

OT : H. Holma, Omen Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum (Leipzig 1923)

P

p, pp : page(s)

PabilsagTale : lit. comp.; CBS 11346 (STVC 89) (+) CBS 13961 (SEM 101) + CBS 15207 (PBS 13,44) + HS 1472 (TMH 4 52) (+) Ni.4174 (ISET 2, 88); ms. M. Civil

PakArch : Pakistan Archaeology (Karachi 1964 ff.)

Paléorient : Paléorient (Paris 1973 ff.)

Pantheon : A. Deimel, Pantheon Babylonicum

PAPS : Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia 1838 ff.)

part. : partial(ly)

PAS (aka PAbS) : P. Mander, Il Pantheon di Abu- Salablkh, Contributo allo studio del pantheon sumerico arcaico, IUO Series Minor (Naples 1986)

PBF : Prähistorische Bronzefunde (Stuttgart)

PBS : University of Pennsylvania, Publications of the Babylonian Section (Philadelphia 1911 ff.)

PDK : E. Weidner, Politische Dokumente aus Kleinasien (= BoSt. 8-9, 1923)

PdP : La Parola del Passato, Naples, journal

PDT : M. Çig/H. Kizilyay/A. Salonen, Die Puzris-Dagan-Texte der Istanbuler Archaologischen Museen Part 1 = texts 1-725 (= AASF B 92, Helsinki 1956)

Peek (aka Pinches/Peek) : T. Pinches, Inscribed Babylonian Tablets in the Possession of Sir Henry Peek (London 1888)

PEQ : Palestine Exploration Quarterly (London 1937 ff.)

pers. : person(al)

Persica : Persica. Uitgave van het Genootschap Nederland-Iran . . . (s'Gravenhage/Leuven 1963/64 ff.)

Personennamen : M. Krebernik, Die Personennamen der Ebla-Texte. Eine Zwischenbilanz, BBVO 7 (Berlin 1988)

PHAV : Oriental Studies Published in Commemoration of the Fortieth Anniversary (1883-1923) of Paul Haupt . . . (Baltimore-Leipzig 1926)

Phoenix : Phoenix. Bulletin uitgegeven door het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap &#147;Ex Oriente Lux&#148; (Leiden 1955 ff.)

phon. : Phonetic

PHPB (aka PHPKB) : J.A. Brinkman, A Political History of Post-Kassite Babylonia 1158-722 B.C. (= AnOr. 43, 1968)

PIB (aka PBI; IB) : Pontifico Istituto Biblico; Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome

PIHANS : Publications de l'Institut historique-archéologique néerlandais de Stamboul (1956ff.)

PJB : Palästina-Jahrbuch des Deutschen Evangelischen Instituts . . . zu Jerusalem (Berlin 1905-1941)

PKG : Propyläen Kunstgeschichte (Berlin 1923-1926; 1967-1982)

PKG 14 : W. Orthmann, Propyläen Kunstgeschichte, Bd. 14: Der Alte Orient (Berlin 1975)

PKT (aka PKTA) : E. Ebeling, Parfümrezepte und kultische Texte aus Assur. Sonderdruck aus Orientalia 17-19 (Rome 1950)

pl(s). : plate(s)

PN(s) : personal name(s)

PNAE : The prosopography of the neo-Assyrian empire, Helsinki 1998 - …

POA : Próximo Oriente Antiguo, Instituto de Estudios Islámicos y del Oriente Próximo, Zaragoza 2003 - …

POAT : W. C. Gwaltney, The Pennsylvania Old Assyrian Texts, 1983

poss. : possessive

Post-OB : Post-Old Babylonian

PPAC : Periodic publications on ancient civilisations (Changchun : Institute for the History of Ancient Civilizations, 1989ff.)

PPAC 1 (aka Adab; SIA) : Yang Zhi, Sargonic Inscriptions from Adab (Chanchun, China 1989)

PPS : Publications of the Palestine Section, Museum of the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia 1930 ff.)

Practical Voc. Assur : lex. series; B. Landsberger and O.R. Gurney, AfO 18, 328ff.

PRAK : H. de Genouillac, Premieres recherches archeologiques a Kich

Presarg. : Presargonic period

presc. : prescription

Priests and Officials (aka City Life, Maekawa City) : Priests and Officials in the Ancient Near East, Papers of the Second Colloquium on the Ancient Near East - The City and its Life held at the Middle Eastern Culture Center in Japan (Mitaka, Tokyo), K. Watanabe, ed. Sonderdruck (Heidelberg 1999)

Princeton 1 : M. Sigrist, Tablettes du Princeton Theological Seminary: Epoque d'Ur III

Prosopografia : F. Pomponio, La Prosopografia dei Testi Presargonici di Fara

Proto-Aa : lex. series, MSL 14, 85ff., see Aa

Proto-Aa Geneva : lex. text, MSL 14, 21f.

Proto-Diri : lex. series, see Diri; ms. M. Civil

Proto-Ea : lex. series; MSL 14, 17ff.; see Ea

Proto-Izi : lex. series; MSL 13, 7ff.; see Izi

Proto-Kagal : lex. series; MSL 13, 63ff.; see Kagal

Proto-Lu : lex. series; MSL 12, 25ff.; see Lu

Proto-Sag : lex. text; MSL SS 1, 7ff.

Proverbs : B. Alster, Proverbs of Anclent Sumer (CDL Press 1997)

PRT : E. G. Klauber, Politisch-religi&ouml;se Texte der Sargonidenzeit, Leipzig 1913.

PRU : Palais royal d'Ugarit. Mission de Ras Shamra (Paris 1956 ff.)

Psalms : S. Langdon, Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms

PSBA : Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology (London 1878 ff.)

PSD : The Sumerian Dictionary of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia 1984 ff.)

PTS : Tablet siglum of the collection of the Princeton Theological Seminary

publ. : published

Pupil : Genouillac, H. de. Babyl. 8. 1924

Puzurmama 1 : royal inscr.; Steible NBW 2, 336f.

Puzurshulgi to Ibbisin : letter; Ali Letters 42ff. A:3; Michalowski Correspondence 253ff.

Puzurshulgi to Shulgi : letter; C. Wilcke, WO 5, 3ff.; Michalowski Correspondence 200ff.

PZ : Prähistorische Zeitschrift (Berlin 1909 ff.)

Q

q.v. : quod vide

QNAR : Quaderni napoletani di Assiriologia Ricerche (Rome 2005 ff.)

QqTabCun : Émile Dantinne, Quelques tablettes sumériennes d'Ur (1910)

QuadSem (aka Quad. Sem.) : Quaderni di Semitistica (Florenz 1971 ff.); M = Materiali, 1 (1992)

QSIM : Quaderni di Studi Indo-Mediterranei

R

R : H. Rawlinson et al., The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, I-V (London 1861-1909); 1R, vol. 1 (1861); 3R, vol. 3 (1870)

RA : Revue d'Assyriologie et d'Archéologie Orientale (Paris 1886 ff.)

RABG (aka God-Lists) : R. L. Litke, A Reconstruction of the Assyro-Babylonian God-Lists . . . (diss., Yale Univ. 1958)

Racc (aka RAcc., RitAcc.) : F. Thureau-Dangin, Rituals accadiens (Paris 1921)

Raggi : Raggi. Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte und Archaologie . . . (Zurich/Basel 1958 ff.)

RAI (aka CRRA, CRRAI, Rencontre) : Proceedings of the Rencontre assyriologique internationale; Compte rendu de la Rencontre Assyriologique lnternationale

RAI 01 (aka Rencontre 01) : Comptes rendus de la premiere Rencontre Assyriologique (Paris 1950); cf. RA 59, 189

RAI 02 (aka Rencontre 02) : Compte rendu de la seconde Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Paris 1951)

RAI 03 (aka Rencontre 03) : Compte rendu de la troisieme Rencontre Assvrlolo~loue Internationale (Leiden 1952)

RAI 04 (aka Rencontre 04) : Le Probleme des Habiru (= Cahiers de la Societe Asiatique 12) (Paris 1955)

RAI 07 (aka Rencontre 07) : Gilgames et sa legende (Paris 1958)

RAI 09 (aka Rencontre 09) : Aspects du contact sumero-akkadien (= Genava NS 8 241ff.) (Geneva 1960)

RAI 11 (aka Rencontre 11) : Compte rendu de l'onzieme Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Leiden 1962)

RAI 12 (aka Rencontre 12) : Iraq 25/2 (London 1963)

RAI 13 (aka Rencontre 13) : RA 58/4 (Paris 1964)

RAI 14 (aka Rencontre 14) : La Divination en Mesopotamie ancienne (Strasbourg 1965)

RAI 17 (aka Rencontre 17) : Actes de la XVIIe Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Brussels 1969)

RAI 18 (aka Rencontre 18) : Gesellschaftsklassen im alten Zweistromland (= ABAW NF 75) (Munich 1970)

RAI 19 (aka Rencontre 19) : Le Palais et la royaute (Paris 1971)

RAI 20 (aka Rencontre 20) : Le Temple et le culte (Leiden 1972)

RAI 21 (aka Rencontre 21) : OrNS 45 (Rome 1974)

RAI 23 (aka Rencontre 23) : Iraq 39 (Birmingham 1976)

RAI 25 (aka Rencontre 25) : Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarn (Berlin 1978)

RAI 26 (aka Rencontre 26) : Mesopotamia 8 (Copenhagen 1979)

RAI 28 (aka Rencontre 28) : AfO Beiheft 19 (Vienna 1981)

RAI 29 (aka Rencontre 29) : Iraq 45/1 (London 1982)

RAI 30 (aka Rencontre 30) : Cuneiform Archives and Libraries (Leiden 1986)

RAI 32 (aka Rencontre 32) : Keilschriftliche Literaturen (Berlin 1986)

RAI 33 (aka Rencontre 33) : La Femme dans le proche-orient Antique (Paris 1987)

RAI 35 (aka Rencontre 35) : Nippur at the Centennial (Philadelphia 1988)

RAI 36 (aka Rencontre 36) : Mesopotamie et Elam (Ghent 1989)

RAI 38 (aka Rencontre 38) : La circulation des biens, des personnes et des idees dans le Proche-Orient ancien (Paris 1991)

RAI 39 (aka Rencontre 39) : Assyrien im Wandel der Zeiten. XXXIXe Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Heidelberg, 6.-10. Juli 1992 - Heidelberger Studien zum Alten Orient, 6, H. Waetzoldt, H. Hauptmann (eds.), (Heidelberger 1997)

RAI 40 (aka Rencontre 40) : Houses and Households in Ancient Mesopotamia (Leiden 1996)

RAI 41 (aka Rencontre 41) : Landwirtschaft im Alten Orient (Berlin 1999)

RAI 42 (aka Rencontre 42) : At the Cross-Roads of Civilizations in the Syro-Mesopotamian Realm – Languages and Cultures in Contact (Leuven 2001)

RAI 43 (aka Rencontre 43) : Intellectual Life of the Ancient Near East (Prague 1998)

RAI 44 (aka Rencontre 44) : Landscapes, Territories, Frontiers and Horizons in the Ancient Near East (Venice 1999)

RAI 45 (aka Rencontre 45) : Historiography (Harvard and Yale 2001)

RAI 46 (aka Rencontre 46) : Nomades et sédentaires dans le Proche-Orient ancien (Paris 2004)

RAI 47 (aka Rencontre 47) : Sex and Gender in the Ancient Near East (Helsinki 2002)

RAI 48 (aka Rencontre 48) : Ethnicity in Ancient Mesopotamia (Leiden 2005)

RAI 49 (aka Rencontre 49) : Nineveh (London 2004 and 2005)

RAI 50 (aka Rencontre 50) : Fauna and Flora in the Ancient Near East (Pretoria 2007)

RAI 51 (aka Rencontre 51) : Classifications of Knowledge in the Ancient Near East: Lexicography, Iconography, Stratigraphy (Chicago 2008)

RAI 52 (aka Rencontre 52) : Krieg und Frieden im Alten Vorderasien (Münster 2014)

RAI 53 (aka Rencontre 53) : Language in the Ancient Near East” (Moscow), “City Administration in the Ancient Near East” (St.-Petersburg) (Winona Lake 2010)

RAI 54 (aka Rencontre 54) : Organization, Representation and Symbols of Power in the Ancient Near East (Winona Lake 2012)

RAI 55 (aka Rencontre 55) : Marti, L. (ed.) La famille dans le Proche-Orient ancien : réalités, symbolismes et images Proceedings of the 55th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale at Paris, 6-9 July 2009. Eisenbrauns. Winona Lake, 2014.

RAI 56 (aka Rencontre 56) : Time and History in the Ancient Near East (Winona Lake 2013)

RAI 57 (aka Rencontre 57) : Tradition and Innovation in the Ancient Near East (Winona Lake 2014)

RAI 58 (aka Rencontre 58) : Private and State (Winona Lake 2017)

RAI 60 (aka Rencontre 60) : Drewnowska, O. & Sandowicz, M. (eds.) 2017 Fortune and Misfortune in the Ancient Near East. Proceedings og the 60th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale at Warsaw. 21-25 July 2014. Eisenbrauns. Winona Lake, 2017.

RAI 61 (aka Rencontre 61) : Text and Image (Leuven 2018)

Raven and Goose : lit. comp.; ms. Univ. Museum

RB : Revue biblique (Paris 1892 ff.)

RBC : tablets in the Rosen Babylonian Collection (Yale Univ.)

RCU : P. Michalowski, The Royal Correspondence of Ur (diss., Yale Univ.)

RE : Paulys Realencyklopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (Stuttgart 1893 ff.2); Suppl. = Supplement (1903 ff.)

Reading the Past : Reading the past (British Museum, London 1990) includes, "Cuneiform", C. B. F. Walker pp.15-73. This chapter is also available as a separate publication.

REC : F. Thureau-Dangin, Recheres sur l'origine de l'Écriture Cunéiforme (Paris 1898); Supplément (1899)

Rec. : recension

recon. : reconstructs, reconstructed

ref(s). : reference(s), referring

RenAcLinc : Pettinato, G. 1977

RES : Revue des études sémitiques (Paris 1934-1939)

ResOr : Res Orientales (Paris 1989 ff.)

resp. : respectively

rest. : restored, restores

rev. : reverse; revised

RevArch : Revue archéologique (Paris 1844 ff.)

RGTC (aka Rép. géogr.) : Répertoire géographique des textes cunéiformes (= TAVO Beihefte Reihe B Nr.7 1974 ff.)

RHA : Revue hittite et asianique (Paris 1930 ff.)

RHR : Revue de I'histoire des religions (Paris 1880 ff.)

RIA : Reallexikon der Assyriologie (und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie) (Berlin 1928 ff.)

RIAA (aka Speleers Recueil, Recueil, RIIAA) : L. Speleers, Recueil des inscriptions de l'Asie antérieure des Musées royaux du Cinquantenaire à; Bruxelles (Brussels 1925)

RICCA : Veysel Donbaz & A. Kirk Grayson, Royal Inscriptions on Clay Cones from Ashur now in Istanbul, The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia vol. 1 (RIMS 1), 1984, Toronto

RIDA : Revue internationale des Droits de l'Antiquité (3. FoIge, Brussels 1954 ff.)

Riftin : A. P. Riftin, Die altsumerischen Verwaltungstexte, Publications de la Société Égyptologique à; l'Université de l'État de Leningrd 1, (Leningrad 1929), cf., G. J. Selz AWEL 544-548

RIMA : The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Assyrian Periods (Toronto 1987 ff.)

RIMB : The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Babylonian periods

RIME : The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Early Periods (Toronto 1990ff)

Rimsin I 02 : (StOr 49,142f.; RIME 4: Rimsin I 1)

Rimsin I 03 : (StOr 49,143f.; RIME 4: Rimsin I 6)

Rimsin I 04 : (StOr 49,145; RIME 4: Rimsin I 2)

Rimsin I 05 : (StOr 49,146; RIME 4: Rimsin I 3)

Rimsin I 06 : (StOr 49, 147f.; RIME 4: Rimsin I 16)

Rimsin I 07 : (StOr 49, 149; RIME 4 Rimsin I 12)

Rimsin I 08 : (StOr 49, 150f.; RIME 4: Rimsin I 20)

Rimsin I 09 : (StOr 49, 153; RIME 4 Rimsin I 4)

Rimsin I 10 : (StOr 49, 154; RIME 4: Rimsin I 9)

Rimsin I 11 : (StOr 49, 155f.; RIME 4: Rimsin I 11)

Rimsin I 12 : (StOr 49, 157; RIME 4: Rimsin I 5)

Rimsin I 13 : (StOr 49, 158f.; RIME 4: Rimsin I 17)

Rimsin I 14 : (StOr 49, 160f., RIME 4 Rimsin I 18)

Rimsin I 15 : (StOr 49, 162; RIME 4: Rimsin I 8)

Rimsin I 16 : (StOr 49, 163f.; RIME 4: Rimsin I 13)

Rimsin I 17 : (StOr 49, 165.; RIME 4. Rimsin I 7)

Rimsin I 18 : (StOr 49, 165f.; RIME 4: Rimsin I 23)

Rimsin I 19 : (StOr 49, 167f.; RIME 4: Rimsin I 2001)

Rimsin I 20 : (cf. StOr 49, 168; RIME 4: Rimsin I 2002)

Rimsin I 21 : (StOr 49, 168; RIME 4: Rimsin I 2003)

Rimsin I 22 : (StOr 49, 168; RIME 4: Rimsin I 2004)

Rimsin I 23 : (StOr 49, 168f; RIME 4: Rimsin I 2005)

Rimsin I 26 : (StOr 49, 171; RIME 4: Rimsin I 10)

Rimsin I 27 : (StOr 49, 173f.; RIME 4: Rimsin I 15)

Rimsin I 28 : (RIME 4: Rimsin I 19)

Rimsin I 29 : (RIME 4: Rimsin I 21)

Rimsin I 30 : (RIME 4: Rimsin I 2006)

Rimsin I 31 : (RIME 4: Rimsin I 2007)

Rimsin I lff. : royal mscr.

Rimsin I seal a : (StOr 49, 169:24; RIME 4: Rimsin I 22)

Rimsin I seal b : (RIME 4: Rimsin I 2008)

Rimsin I seals c-j : (StOr49, 169f.:25; RIME 4: Rimsin I 2009-2016)

Rimsin I seals k-n : (RIME 4: Rimsin I 2017-2020)

RINAP : The Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period

Rivista Biblica : Rivista Biblica, Associazione Biblica Italiana

RJM : F. Joannès (ed.), Rendre la Justice en Mésopotamie. Archives judiciaires du Proche-Orient ancien, IIIe-Ier millénaires avant J.-C. (Saint-Denis 2000)

RlA : Reallexikon der Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archaologie

RLV : Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte (Berlin I 924- 1932)

Rm. : Museum siglum of the British Museum (Rassam)

RMA : R. Thompson, The Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon (London 1900)

RMSV : Restitution Matérielle de la Stèle des Vautours. Restitution archéologique par L. Heuzey, restitution épigraphique par F. Thureau-Dangin (Paris 1909)

RN : royal name

RO (aka Y. Rosengarten, RO) : Y. Rosengarten, Le régime d'offrandes deans la société sumérienne d'après les textes présargoniques de Lagash (Paris 1960)

RO : Rocznik Orientalistyczny

Robertson diss. : J. F. Robertson, Redistributive Economies in Ancient Mesopotamian Society: A case study from Isin-Larsa period Nippur (PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1981)

Rochester : M. Sigrist, Documents from Tablet Collections in Rochester, New York (Bethesda, Maryland 1991)

Rocznik MNW : Rocznik Muzeum Narodowego w Warszawie

Rollsiegel (aka VR) : A. Moortgat, Vorderasiatische RolIsiegel (Berlin 19401; 19662; 19883)

Royal Titles : W.W. Hallo, Early Mesopotamian Royal Titles: A Philological and Historical Analysis

RS : Museum siglum of the Louvre and Damascus (Ras Shamra)

RSM : S. Dalley, A catalogue of the Akkadian cuneiform tablets in the collections of the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh; Royal Scottish Museum sigla

RSO : Rivista degli Studi Orientali (Rome 1907 ff.)

RSP (aka Repertoire) : Y. Rosengarten, Répertoire commenté des signes présargoniques sumeriens de Lagash (Paris 1967)

RT : Recueil de travaux relatifs à; la philologie et à; l'archéologie égyptiennes et assyriennes (Paris 1870 ff.)

RTC : F. Thureau-Dangin, Recueil des tablettes chaldéennes (Paris 1903)

Rulers of Lagash : lit. comp.; E. Sollberger, JCS 21, 279ff.

Ruperto Carola (aka Ruperto Carola Sonderheft) : J. Schäfer/W. Simon (eds.), Strandverschiebungen in ihrer Bedeutung für Geowissenschaften und Archäologie, Ruperto Carola Sonderheft (Heidelberg 1981)

S

s.v. : sub voce

SA (avoid Jean Shumer et Akkad, [shin]A) : C.-F. Jean, Shumer et Akkad, contribution a I'histoire de la civilisation dans la Basse-Mésopotamie (Paris 1923)

Sa : lex. series, MSL 3 3ff.

Sa Voc. : lex. series; MSL 3, 49ff.

SAA : State Archives of Assyria (Helsinki 1987 ff.)

SAAB : State Archives of Assyria. Bulletin (Padua 1987 ff.)

SAAeK (avoid SAK, SAÄK) : Studien zur altägyptischen Kultur (Hamburg 1974 ff.)

SAALT : State Archives of Assyria Literary Texts

SACT (avoid Kang Drehem, Kang Umma) : Sumerian and Akkadian Cuneiform Texts in the Collection of the World Heritage Museum of the University of Illinois, I/II: Sh. T. Kang (Urbana 1972/1973)

Sag : lex. series MSL SS 1 3-38

Sagesse (avoid SSA) : J. van Dijk, La Sagesse sumero-accadienne

Saglugalbizu to Nurkabta : letter, P. Michalowski, JCS 30 115

SAHG (avoid Falkenstein SAHG) : A. Falkenstein W. von Soden, Sumerische und akkadische Hymnen und Gebete (Zurich/Stuttgart 1953)

SAKF : K. Oberhuber, Sumerische und akkadische Keilschriftdenkmäler des Archäologischen Museums zu Florenz (IBK 7/8, Innsbruck 1958/1960)

SAKI (avoid SAK) : F. Thureau-Dangin, Die sumerischen und akkadischen Königsinschriften (= VAB I, 1907)

Salesianum : Salesianum / pubblicata a cura dei professori del Pontificio Ateneo salesiano di Torino (Rome 1939ff.)

Salesianum : Salesianum / pubblicata a cura dei professori del Pontificio Ateneo salesiano di Torino (Rome 1939ff.)

Salmanticensis : Salmanticensis (Salamanca 1954ff.)

SAM 27 : Horstmanshoff, H.F.J. & Stol, M. (eds.), Magic and Rationality in Ancient Near Eastern and Graeco-Roman Medicine. Studies in Ancient Medicine 27. Brill, 2004.

Samsuiluna 4 : royal inscr.

Samsuiluna 6 : (RIME 4, 383f.: Samsuiluna 6)

Samsuiluna 7 : (RIME 4, 384f.: Samsuiluna 7)

Samsuiluna A : royal inscr.; CT 21, 47-50 (Sum.); VAS 1, 33 (Akk.) and dupl.; ms. Univ. Museum; cf. I. Kärki, StOr S5:1, 19ff., RIME 4: Samsulluna 5

Samsuiluna B : royal inscr.; F. Thureau-Dangin, RA 39, 5ff.; E. Sollberger, RA 61, 39ff.; cf. I. Kärki, StOr 55:1, 25ff.; RIME 4: Samsuiluna 3

Samsuiluna C : royal inscr.; E. Sollberger, RA 63, 29ff.; cf. I. Karki, StOr 55: l, 32ff.; RIME 4: Samsuiluna 7

Samsuiluna D : royal inscr.; A. Poebel, AfO 9, 241ff.; E. Sollberger, RA 63, 40ff.; cf. I. Kärki, StOr 55:1, 39ff.; RIME 4: Samsuiluna 8

Samsuiluna seals a-t : (RIME 4 394ff.: Samsuiluna 2001-2020)

SANE : Sources of the Ancient Near East (Los Angeles/ Malibu 1974 ff.)

SANER : Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Records (De Gruyter 2012ff.)

SANTAG : Karl Hecker und Walter Sommerfeld, eds., Arbeiten und Untersuchungen zur Keilschriftkunde

SAOC : Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization (Chicago 1931 ff.)

Sarg. : Sargonic period

Sargon : H. Winckler, Die Keilschriftexte Sargons

SARI (avoid Cooper Presarg. Inscr.) : Sumerian and Akkadian Royal Inscriptions, I (= American Oriental Society. Translation Series, I): J. Cooper, Presargonic Inscriptions (New Haven 1986)

SAT (aka TBM, TYBC) : M. Sigrist, Sumerian Archival Texts, SAT I = Texts from the British Museum (CDL Press 1993) (= Texts from the British Museum, TBM); SAT II = Texts from the Yale Babylonian Collection, Part I (CDL Press 2000) (= Texts from the Yale Babylonian Collection I, TYBC I, 1-1176; SAT III = Texts from the Yale Babylonian Collection, Part II (CDL Press 2000) (=TYBC II, 1177-2223)

SAUK (aka SANTAG) : SANTAG. Arbeiten und Untersuchungen zur Keilschriftkunde (Wiesbaden 1990 ff.)

SBAW (aka SB München) : Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in München. Phil-hist. Klasse (Munich 1924 ff.); NF = Neue Folge

SBH : G. Reisner, Sumerisch-babylonische Hymnen nach Thontafeln griechischer Zeit (Berlin 1896)

SBo. : H. Güterbock, Siegel aus Bogazköy (I = AfO Beih. 5, 1940; II = AfO Beih.7 1942; reprint Osnabrück 1967)

SCCNH : Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians (Winona Lake 1981 ff.)

SCD : E. Grant, Cuneiform Documents in the Smith College Library (= Biblical and Kindred Studies 1, Haverford, Pennsylvania 1918)

Sceaux cassites : H. Limet, Les legendes des sceaux cassites

Schlaf : W. Farber, Schlaf, Kindchen Schlaf. Mesopotamische Baby- Beschworungen und -Rltuale (=MC 2)

Schooldays : lit. comp.; S.N. Kramer, Schooldays ( Museum Monograph); rev. ms. A. Sjöberg

Schrijvend Verleden : K. R. Veenhof (ed.), Schrijvend Verleden, Documenten uit het Oude Nabije Oosten bertaald en toegelicht (Leiden 1983), (= MEOL24)

SCO (aka StClOr.) : Studi classici e orientali (Pisa 1951 ff.)

Scribal Activities : lit. comp.; (Edubba D) ms M. Civil; see M. Civil in Melanges Birot, 67ff.

Scribal Art : lit. comp.; Å.W. Sjöberg, JCS 24, 126ff.

SCS : H. Frankfort, Stratified Cylinder Seals from the Diyala Region (= OlP 72, 1955)

SCT (SmithCS 38) : C. H. Gordon, Smith College Tablets . . . (= Smith College Studies in History 38, Northampton, Mass. 1952)

SD (aka SDIOA, SDOAS) : Studia et documenta ad iura Orientis antiqui pertinentia (Leiden 1936 ff.)

SDU : P. Steinkeller, Sale Documents of the Ur-III-Period (= FAOS 17)

Seal Cylinders (aka SC, SCWA) : William Hayes Ward, The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia (Washington: The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1910)

SEL : Studi Epigrafici e Linguistici sul Vicino Oriente Antico (Verona 1984 ff.)

SEM : F. Chiera, Sumerian Epics and Myths (= OlP 15, 1934)

Sem. : Semitic

SET : T.B. Jones and J.W Snyder, Sumerian Economic Texts from the Third Ur Dynasty (Minneapolis 1961)

SEV : Studi Egei e Vicinorientali (Napoli)

SF (aka Deimel SF) : A. Deimel, Schultexte aus Fara (= WVDOG 43, 1923)

SFS : V. Scheil, Une saison de fouilles à; Sippar, 1 (1902)

Sg. II (aka Lie, Sg.) : A. Fuchs, Die Inschriften Sargons II. aus Khorsabad (Göttingen 1994); A. Lie, The lnscriptions of Sargon II, King of Assyria, I: The Annals (Paris 1929); D. Lyon, Keilschrifttexte Sargons . .. (=AB 5,1883); F. Thureau-Dangin, Une relation de la huitième campagne de Sargon (= TCL 3, 1912) = Sg. 8; H. Winckler, Die Keilschrifttexte Sargons . . . (Leipzig 1889)

SGL (aka Falkenstein Götterlieder,van Dijk Gotterlieder) : Sumerische Götterlieder, I: A. Falkenstein; II: J. van Dijk (= AHAW 1959, 1; 1960, 1)

Sh Voc. : lex. series; MSL 3, 91ff., 132ff.

Shabra to the Generals : letter; ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

SHAJ : Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan (Amman 1982 ff.)

Shamash : A. Schollmeyer, Sumerisch-babylonische Hymnen und Gebete an Shamash

Sharrumbani to Lunanna : letter; ISET 2, 117 Ni.4164:4ff.

Sharrumbani to Susin : letter; C. Wilcke, WO 5, 7f.; Michalowski Correspondence 224ff

SHAW (aka SB Heidelberg) : Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wisseinschaften. Phil-hist. Klasse (Heidelberg 1910 ff.)

Shepherd and Farmer : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 368ff. (SRT 3; SEM 92; UM 29-16-435 [unpubl.]; SEM 93); van Dijk Sagesse, 65ff.

Shuilishu 1 : (StOr 49,2)

Shuilishu 2 : (StOr 49,3f.)

Shuilishu 3 : (RIME 4,18f.: Suilisu 3)

Shuilishu lff. : royal inscr.

Shuilishu seal a : (8tOr 49,39 (edited as Damiqilishu 1 3); RIME 4: Shuilishu 4)

Shuilishu seal b-d : (RIME 4 20f.: Shuilishu 2001-2003)

Shulgi A : lit. comp.; Klein Shulgi 182ff.

Shulgi B : lit. comp.; ms. G. Haayer; rev. ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

Shulgi C : lit. comp.; ms. J. Klein

Shulgi D : lit. comp.; Klein Shulgi 70ff.

Shulgi E : lit. comp.; ms. J. Klein

Shulgi F : lit. comp.; ms. J Klein

Shulgi G : lit. comp.; CT 36, 26-27; J. Klein, Studies Tadmor 292ff.

Shulgi H : lit. comp.; BE 31, 4

Shulgi K : lit. comp.; ISET 1, 91 Ni.4385 13f.

Shulgi L : lit. comp.; TCL 15, 32

Shulgi lff. : royal inscr.; Steible NBW 2, 153ff.

Shulgi M : lit. comp.; SLTNi 76

Shulgi O : lit. comp., J Klein, AOAT 25 271ff., rev. ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

Shulgi P : lit. comp.; J. Klein, TAPS 71/7

Shulgi Q : lit. comp.; SRT 15; ms. J Klein

Shulgi R : lit. comp.; J Klein, Studies Artzi 65ff.

Shulgi S : lit. comp.; UET 6/1, 93 and dupls.

Shulgi statue : royal inscr.; M. Civil, Studies Å.W. Sjöberg 49ff.

Shulgi T : lit. comp.; Å.W. Sjöberg, AOAT 25, 416:91-116; cf. Klein Shulgi 42 note 79

Shulgi to Amarsuen : letter; ISET 2, 115 Ni.3083 and dupl.; cf. Michalowski Correspondence 186ff.

Shulgi to Aradmu 1 : letter; Ali Letters 34ff. A:2; Michalowski Correspondence 147ff.; Michalowski LEM no. 97

Shulgi to Aradmu 2 : letter; Michalowski Correspondence 222f., S.N. Kramer, OECT 5, 13ff.

Shulgi to Aradmu 3 : letter; Michalowski Correspondence 184f.

Shulgi to Ishbierra : letter; D.O. Edzard, MDI 57, no. 1 ii 40ff.

Shulgi to Puzursulgi 1 : letter; Michalowski Correspondence 186ff.

Shulgi to Puzursulgi 2 : letter; D.O. Edzard, MDI 57, no. 1 i lff.; Michalowski Correspondence 189ff.

Shulgi U : lit. comp.; van Dijk Götterlieder

Shulgi W : lit. comp., UET 6/1, 83

Shulgi X : lit. comp.; Klein Shulgi 135ff:

Shulgi Y : lit. comp.; A. Falkenstein, Iraq

Shulgi Z : lit. comp.; S.N. Kramer, Iraq 31, 18ff.

Shulgi3Hymns : J. Klein, Three Shulgi Hymns

ShulgiV : lit. comp. SRT13: 1-33

Shulpae Hymn : lit. comp.; A. Falkenstein, ZA 55, 1 lff.

Shumma Izbu : Akk. omen series; E. Leichty, TCS 4

Shurpu : incant. series; E. Reiner, AfO Beiheft 11

Shuruppak : B. Alster, Mesopotamia 2

Shusin Hist. Inscr. A : hist. inscr.; R. Kutscher, Brockmon Tablets 1: Royal Inscriptions, 74ff.

Shusin Hist. Inscr. B : hist. inscr.; M. Civil, JCS 21, 24ff.; rev. ms. Å.W. Sjöberg; C. Wilcke, NABU 1990/33

Shusin Hymn A : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 390ff. (SRT 23); B. Alster, RA 79, 138ff.

Shusin Hymn B : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 400ff. (ISET 1, 90 Ni.2461); B. Alster, RA 79, 135ff.

Shusin Hymn C : lit. comp.; Sefati Love Songs 407ff. (PAPS 107, 521 N 3560; PAPS 107, 521 N 4305 obv. li 10-12); S.N. Kramer, PAPS 107, 508

Shusin lff. : royal inscr.; Steible NBW 2, 253ff.

Shusin to Sharrumbani : letter; MlchalowsKl Correspondence 234ff.

Si. : field numbers of tablets excavated at Sippar in the collections of the Archaeological Museums (Istanbul)

SIG7.ALAN : lex. series SIG7.AILAN = nabnitu; MSL 16

Silliadad 1 : royal inscr.; I. Kärki, StOr 49, 81

Silver and Copper : lit. comp.; ms. M. Civil, rev. by M. Hall

Siniddinam 01 : (StOr 49, 57; RIME 4: Siniddinam 13)

Siniddinam 02 : (StOr 49, 58; RIME 4: Siniddinam 10)

Siniddinam 03 : (StOr 49, S8f.; RIME 4: Siniddinam 11)

Siniddinam 04 : (StOr 49, 59; RIME 4: Siniddinam 12)

Siniddinam 05 : (StOr 49, 60)

Siniddinam 06 : (StOr 49, 61; RIME 4: Siniddinam 2)

Siniddinam 07 : (StOr 49, 63; RIME 4: Siniddinam 14)

Siniddinam 08 : (StOr 49, 64f.; RIME 4: Siniddinam 9)

Siniddinam 09 : (StOr 49, 65; RIME 4: Siniddinam 7)

Siniddinam 11 : (StOr 49, 68)

Siniddinam 12 : (RIME 4, 177f.: Siniddinam 15)

Siniddinam 13 : (StOr 49, 68; RIME 4: Siniddinam 1 [Il. 1-40 only])

Siniddinam 14 : (StOr 49, 76-79; RIME 4: Siniddinam 6)

Siniddinam 15 : (StOr 49, 79; RIME 4: Siniddinam 3)

Siniddinam 16 : (StOr 49, 79, RIME 4: Siniddinam 4)

Siniddinam 17 : (RIME 4, 167f.: Siniddinam 8)

Siniddinam A : lit. comp.; UET 6/1, 98 and dupl., ms. M. Roth

Siniddinam and Ishkur : lit. comp.; P. Michalowski, Studies Sachs 265ff.

Siniddinam lff. : royal inscr.

Siniddinam seals a-n : (StOr49,66-68; RIME 4: Siniddinam 2001-2014)

Siniddinam to Nininsina : letter-prayer; W.W. Hallo, AOAT25 214ff.

Siniddinam to Utu : letter-prayer; W.W. Hallo, Studies Kraus 95ff.; R. Borger, Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen 1, 1991 no. 2, 22-81, rev. ms. Å.W. Sjöberg

Sinillatum to Iddindagan : letter; Ali Letters 63ff. B:2; rev ms. P. Michalowski

Siniqisham 01 : (StOr 49, 80f.; RIME 4: Siniqisham 2)

Siniqisham 02 : (StOr 49, 81; RIME 4 Siniqisham 2001)

Siniqisham 03 : (RIME 4, 197: Siniqisham 3)

Siniqisham 04 : (RIME 4, 190: Siniqisham 1)

Siniqisham lff. : royal inscr.

Siniqisham seal a : (StOr 49, 81; RIME 4 Siniqisham 2002)

Sinkashid 01 : (StOr 49, 177)

Sinkashid 02 : (StOr 49, 177)

Sinkashid 03 : (StOr 49, 178)

Sinkashid 04 : (StOr 49, 179)

Sinkashid 07 : (StOr 49, 181; RIME 4: Sinkashid 10)

Sinkashid 08 : (StOr 49, 182)

Sinkashid 09 : (StOr 49, 183; RIME 4: Sinkashid 6)

Sinkashid 10 : (StOR 49, 183; RIME 4: Sinkashid 11)

Sinkashid 11 : (StOr 49, 184; RIME 4: Sinkashid 12)

Sinkashid 12 : (StOr 49, 185; RIME 4: Sinkashid 13)

Sinkashid 13 : (StOr 49, 186; RIME 4: Sinkashid 14)

Sinkashid 14 : (StOr 49, 186f; RIME 4: Sinkashid 15)

Sinkashid lff. : royal inscr.

Sinkasid 04 var. : (StOr 49, 179; RIME 4: Sinkashid 5)

Sinkasid 05 : (StOr 49, 180; RIME 4: Sinkashid 9)

Sinkasid 06 : (StOr 49, 180; RIME 4: Sinkashid 7)

Sinmagir 01 : (StOr 49, 35f.)

Sinmagir 02 : (StOr 49, 36)

Sinmagir lff. : royal inscr.

Sinmagir seal a-c : (StOr 49, 36; RIME 4: Sinmagir 2001-2003)

Sinshamuh to Enki : letter-prayer; W.W. Hallo, JAOS 88, 82f.

Sistema verbale : Franco D'Agostino, Il sistema verbale sumerico nei testi lessicali di Ebla, Dipartimento di studi orientali, Studi Semitici, Nuova serie 7 (Rome 1990)

SITU : Rudolf H. Mayr, "Seal Impressions on Tablets from Umma", draft edited March 2005

SKIZ (aka SKI) : W. Römer, Sumerische ,&#148;Königshymnen&#148; der Isin-Zeit (= DMOA 13, 1965)

SKL (aka Sumerian King List) : lit. comp.; Th. Jacobsen, AS 11

SKly (aka Krecher Kultlyrik) : J. Krecher, Sumerische Kultlyrik (Wiesbaden 1966)

SKT : H. Winckler, Sammlung von Keilschrifttexten (Leipzig 1823-95)

SL (aka ŠL) : A. Deimel, Shumerisches Lexikon (Rom 1925-50); vol.4/2: G. Gössmamn, Planetarium (1950)

SLB : Studia ad tabulas cuneiformes collectas a F.M. Th. de Liagre Bohl pertinentia (Leiden l952 ff.)

SLFN : J. Heimerdinger, Sumerian Literary Fragments from Nippur (= 0PBF 4)

SLOB (aka St. Lieberman, Loanwords) : S. Lieberman, The Sumerian Loanwords in Old-Babylonian Akkadian

SLT

Sours: https://cdli.ox.ac.uk/wiki/abbreviations_for_assyriology

Siegel wiki asa

Alaskan Bush People

American reality television series

Alaskan Bush People
Alaskan Bush People Title Card.jpg
GenreReality
StarringBrown Family
Narrated byAsa Siegel
Country of originUnited States
Original languageEnglish
No. of seasons13
No. of episodes95 (list of episodes)
Production locationsChichagof Island, Alaska, Coordinates 57°57'31"N, 135°38'05.77"W, and Palmer Lake, Washington, Coordinates 48°54'00"N, 119°37'03"W, Camper at 48°47'50.5"N 119°35'30.0"W
Running timeApprox. 42 minutes
Production companyPark Slope Productions
Original networkDiscovery Channel
Original releaseMay 6, 2014 (2014-05-06) –
present

Alaskan Bush People is an American scripted, docudrama-style reality television series that follows the Brown family in an attempt to survive in the wilderness, detached from modern society. The series premiered on the Discovery Channel on May 6, 2014.[1] Filmed on location near Hoonah, Alaska and Chichagof Island, with later seasons filmed on location in Okanogan County, Washington, it follows the extended Brown family's life.[2][3] Although purportedly a genuine reality TV show, it is criticized for being scripted and/or fake.[4][5][6][7]

In April 2019, Radar Online learned that the show has been renewed for a 10th season.[8] On November 13, the show was renewed for season 11 which premiered on December 4, 2019.[9] Season 12 premiered on August 23, 2020.[10] In August 2020, cast member Bear Brown posted on Instagram saying that the family's home had been destroyed in the 2020 Washington wildfires.[11] Patriarch Billy Brown died at age 68 on February 7, 2021, after suffering a seizure.[12]

Background[edit]

The series follows the Brown family of Hoonah, Alaska as they supposedly build lives together off the grid in Alaska.

Episodes[edit]

Series overview[edit]

Season 1 (2014)[edit]

Season 2 (2015)[edit]

Season 3 (2015)[edit]

Season 4 (2015–16)[edit]

Season 5 (2016)[edit]

Season 6 (2017)[edit]

Season 7 (2017)[edit]

Season 8 (2018)[edit]

Season 9 (2019)[edit]

Season 10 (2019)[edit]

Season 11 (2019–20)[edit]

Season 12 (2020)[edit]

Season 13 (2021)[edit]

Specials[edit]

Family members[edit]

RelationshipNameFull NameBirthdate
FatherBilly BrownBilly Bryan BrownDecember 3, 1952
Died February 7, 2021
MotherAmi BrownAmora Larene Branson BrownAugust 28, 1963
SonMatt BrownMatthew William BrownSeptember 7, 1982
SonBam Bam BrownJoshua Bam Bam BrownSeptember 18, 1984
SonBear BrownSolomon Isaiah Freedom BrownJune 10, 1987
SonGabe BrownGabriel Starbuck BrownDecember 15, 1989
SonNoah BrownNoah Darkcloud BrownJuly 18, 1992
DaughterBirdy BrownAmora Jean Snowbird BrownNovember 18, 1994
DaughterRainy BrownMerry Christmas Kathryn Raindrop BrownNovember 23, 2002
Daughter (by Billy's first wife)Twila ByarsTwila Wilson
Daughter-in-law (Noah's wife)Rhain Alisha BrownRhain Alisha
Grandson (by Noah and Rhain Alisha)Eli BrownElijah Connor BrownFebruary 26, 2019[34]
Daughter-in-law (Gabe's wife)Raquell BrownRaquell Rose Pantilla
Granddaughter (by Gabe and Raquell)Sophie Brown
Grandson (by Bear and girlfriend Raiven Adams)River Anthony BrownMarch 9, 2020

Billy has a criminal history of horse theft in 1980.[35] Ami has a criminal history of welfare fraud.[36]

Billy was previously married to Brenda Britt; their daughter, Twila Byars, appeared in the episode "Growing the Wolfpack" (S05E04).[37]

[edit]

On October 3, 2014, following an investigation by the Alaska Department of Revenue, a Juneau grand jury indicted the Browns with 60 counts of first-degree unsworn falsification regarding Permanent Fund Dividend forms for their residency and first- and second-degree theft that took place between 2009 and 2012.[38]

Billy was charged with 24 of those counts, which occurred from 2010 to 2013 as well as for the theft of more than $21,000 in dividend money for himself and others.[38] The charges meant that the state believed the family spent more than 180 days a year living outside of Alaska and lied about it on their applications.[38]

On November 18, 2015, Billy and Joshua struck a plea deal for the whole family except Matt and Rain (Matt wasn't living there and didn't file and Rain was too young). They pled guilty for the rest of the family for lying on PFD forms.[39] Billy and Joshua's punishment for stealing over $21,000 dollars was restitution, fines and 30 days of house arrest at a Juneau hotel.

References[edit]

  1. ^"Discovery's New Series Follows a Remarkable Family Off the Beaten Path and Into the Wild Alaskan Wilderness" (Press release). Discovery [Channel]. April 28, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2017 – via The Futon Critic.
  2. ^Ancell, Alycia (July 12, 2016). "Alaskan Bush People". Inquistr. Archived from the original on July 19, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  3. ^Fehrenbacher, Emily (July 12, 2016). "Matt Brown says he's headed to rehab on 'Alaskan Bush People'". Anchorage Daily News. Archived from the original on July 19, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  4. ^Matthews, Toni (November 15, 2016). "Why it's finally time to cancel Alaskan Bush People". Looper.com. Archived from the original on August 30, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  5. ^White, Tiffany (March 28, 2018). "Alaskan Bush People Brown Family: Fans Now Know the Show Is Fake". In Touch Weekly. American Media, Inc.Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  6. ^Cheatle, Julian (October 20, 2017). "Why do people think Alaskan Bush People is fake?". Monsters and Critics. Archived from the original on September 12, 2018. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  7. ^Matthews, Toni (June 14, 2016). "'Alaskan Bush People' Exclusive: Fake Boat Accident Planned For Show? [Rumor]". Inquisitr. Archived from the original on October 26, 2018. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  8. ^"Browns Return For Big Bucks! 'Alaskan Bush People' Is Renewed For Season 10". Radar Online. April 25, 2019. Archived from the original on April 25, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  9. ^"Discovery Channel's 'Alaskan Bush People' Renewed For Season 11 + Premiere Date". www.renewcanceltv.com. Retrieved November 13, 2019.
  10. ^"The Brown Family Battles Mother Nature's Extreme Weather in Brand-New Season of "Alaskan Bush People" Premiering August 23 on Discovery Channel". The Futon Critic. August 3, 2020.
  11. ^Matthews, David. "'Alaskan Bush People' family's home destroyed by fire, reality star says". nydailynews.com. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  12. ^"Alaskan Bush People star dead at 68". tmz.com.
  13. ^Porter, Rick (November 12, 2015). "Wednesday cable ratings: 'AHS: Hotel' on top, plus 'Alaskan Bush People,' 'South Park'". Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  14. ^Porter, Rick (November 30, 2015). "Wednesday cable ratings: 'Alaskan Bush People' tops Thanksgiving Eve". Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  15. ^Porter, Rick (December 10, 2015). "Wednesday cable ratings: 'South Park,' 'AHS' and 'Alaskan Bush People' lead". Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  16. ^Porter, Rick (January 4, 2016). "Wednesday cable ratings: 'Alaskan Bush People' steady, bowl games lead". Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  17. ^Porter, Rick (January 7, 2016). "Wednesday cable ratings: 'AHS: Hotel' returns, plus 'It's Always Sunny,' 'Alaskan Bush People'". Archived from the original on August 30, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  18. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Wednesday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 7.19.2017 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on July 21, 2017. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  19. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Wednesday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 8.9.2017 | Showbuzz Daily". Archived from the original on August 10, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  20. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Wednesday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 8.16.2017 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  21. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Wednesday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 8.23.2017 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  22. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Sunday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 8.19.2018 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on October 5, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  23. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Sunday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 8.26.2018 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on April 1, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  24. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Sunday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 9.2.2018 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  25. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Sunday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 9.9.2018 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  26. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Sunday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 9.16.2018 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on April 10, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  27. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Sunday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 9.23.2018 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on September 25, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  28. ^ ab"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Sunday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 9.30.2018 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  29. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Sunday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 3.3.2019 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  30. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Sunday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 3.10.2019 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  31. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Sunday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 3.17.2019 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  32. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Sunday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 3.24.2019 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  33. ^"UPDATED: SHOWBUZZDAILY's Top 150 Sunday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 3.31.2019 - Showbuzz Daily". www.showbuzzdaily.com. Archived from the original on April 6, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  34. ^https://people.com/parents/alaskan-bush-people-noah-brown-wife-rhain-welcome-son-elijah-connor/
  35. ^El Paso County Texas District Clerk, April 14, 1980
  36. ^State of Alaska Dept of Revenue, Child Support Enforcement Division, October 12, 1993
  37. ^https://screenrant.com/alaskan-bush-people-secrets-dark-controversy-facts-trivia/
  38. ^ abcHanlon, Tegan (October 22, 2014). "Stars of Alaska reality TV show charged with PFD fraud". Alaskan Dispatch News. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  39. ^Hanlon, Tegan (November 18, 2015). "'Alaskan Bush People' stars plead guilty to lying on PFD forms". Alaskan Dispatch News. Archived from the original on April 4, 2016. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaskan_Bush_People
Liga ALAC.PL ACC Runda 2: Zandvoort

The Show business has become very flexible to add people of color, culture, nation, and gender to their work. There are people like Drew Fuller, who were not accustomed to what the fashion industry provided and entered into the movie business. Surprisingly in a matter of time, he shared his work in Paper to Cut, Love Fall, to mention some.

If you were unaware that Drew is a model, you might be missing a lot of things in his life. Hence this article is for the die-hard fans of Drew who cannot get enough of him. This article will include his age, height, body, career, net worth, and more. Before starting all this, let’s get started with some quick facts;

Short Introduction, Parents, Siblings, Childhood, and Education

This handsome real name is Andrew Alan Fuller, and he used Drew as his stage name. He was born in Atherton, California, in the United States of America. His family was always supportive when it came to his profession. That might be the reason why he was able to throw himself into the scary world at the tender age of 12.

Drew is blessed to have a younger sister named Hilary, who not only loves him but supports him no matter what too. He is living proof that you can achieve whatever you seek in life when your family is motivating.

Unfortunately, there is no valid information about her beloved family. Maybe he wants to keep his loved ones away from the media. Similarly, there is nothing on the internet about his academic qualification. We believe that he has at least completed his study. Moreover, Drew is an American citizen who hails from white ethnicity.

How Old Is Drew Fuller?- Age, Height, and Body Measurement

This dandy man was born in the year 1980 and is 40 years old in 2020. He celebrates his birthday on the 19th day of May and falls under the sun sign of Taurus. People of this sign are talented, self-centered, and caring.

Being a model, Fuller stands tall at a towering height of 6 feet 1 inch. Now, this height is not only sought out by the fashion designer but by the young men too. It might not harm us to say that his height is another factor that grabs the crowd’s attention.

Appearing in a different genre of the movies, there is no denying that this American actor likes to make him look great for any character he is assigned to. For the Maintainance of his body and to stay fit, Fuller hits the gym more often than not.

So there, we even revealed the reason why Drew looks so refreshing all the time. His white toned body makes him look alluring and admirable. Even more, his pair of gleaming green eyes and short dark brown hair is like a cherry on the top.

Professional Career

Who could have thought that a 12-year-old kid will be scouted by a talent agency to become a model? Thanks, t his family friend, he appears on the cover of UCLA magazine at an early age. When he was 16 years old, he was doing that thing for real.

As soon as he stepped into the fashion industry, several companies were eager to work with him. Eventually, he became the face of the outstanding brand Prada. Along with that Fuller, also worked for Tommy Hilfiger, Club Med, at the beginning of his career.

Later, Fuller was seen in many commercials for Britney Spears, Subway, Pepsi, J. Crew, Toyota, to name a few. He also appeared in the music video for The Calling’s Wherever You Will Go, where he portrayed the role of a boy who was betrayed by his teenage girl. In 2002 this handsome was in Jenifer Love Hewitts music BareNaked.

Next thing you know, they were found smooching in various Hollywood events. However, every rose has its thorns, there were many ups and downs in their relationship. Eventually, they could not figure out the dilemma that was causing their separation within a year.

With time Drew makes a cameo in the music album of Tired of Being Sorry for Ringside. Likewise, he made a debut in the film industry in 2000 from Voodoo Academy. Other movie includes the likes of Vampire Clan (2002), The Ultimate Gift (2006), Blonde Ambition (2007), Fatal Instinct (2014), Beyong Brotherhood (2017).

In addition to this, Fuller has also landed his work on television shows. Some of his famous roles happen to be in Black Sash (2003), The O.C (2003), Charmed (2003- 2006), Hugg (2006), Army Wives (2007- 2012), The Circuit (2008), NCIS: Los Angeles (2011), Longmire (2015), Dispatch (2016).

Who Is Drew Fuller Girlfriend? Is He Married?

From the romantic roles he plays in many movies, fans are suspecting how he might be like in a real relationship. Well, by the looks of it, we sure can tell that Drew is a romantic fellow who knows how to make someone feel valuable. His generosity makes every fangirl fall for him.

Whar’s surprising is that this handsome found the love of his life and career in the same place. By that, we mean Drew fell found the one he was looking for on the set of Black Sash in 2003. Sarah Carter and Fuller were fond of each other as soon as they meet.

In addition to this incident, Drew found another girl whose name is Ceara McAuliffe. By the looks of it, the gorgeous lady seems to be out of the show business. The lovey-dovey couple seems to be pretty serious about themselves as they have not shared any data regarding their love life.

While fans on the line are eager to know what is going on with them. But one thing is sure that no matter what, their engagement won’t surprise the fans anymore. In fact, we are ready to hear the big news when it is time.

How Much Does Drew Fuller Earn?- Net Worth

Modeling and acting are two different pathways that are somewhat similar to each other. They might be tough to handle, but surely the business pays more than you can imagine. In the case of Drew, whatever he does makes him make truckloads of money.

In 2020 Fuller has an unexpected net worth grossing $1.5 million. This is all thanks to the hard work, passion, and determination he showed through his work. Apart from this, there is valid information about salary, cars and a mansion.

We will update the necessary data as soon as it is on the media. Moreover, Drew is an avid motorcycle racer but not a professional. Along with that’s also likes spending his time surfing and snowboarding.

Social Media Presence

Instagram– 97k followers

Twitter– 58k followers

Sours: https://www.wikio.org/ne/wiki/drew-fuller-prada-movies-age-height-wife-kids-net-worth-instagram-31256

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