Oval capsule

Oval capsule DEFAULT

Tank Volume Calculator

Tank Schematic: Horizontal Cylinder
with flat tank heads

horizontal cylinder with flat tank heads as a water, oil or gas tank

Calculator Use

Estimate the total capacity and filled volumes in gallons and liters of tanks such as oil tanks and water tanks. Assumes inside dimensions of the tank.

Enter U.S. dimensions in feet (ft) or inches (in), or metric dimensions in meters (m) or centimeters (cm). Results are presented in U.S. fluid gallons, Imperial (UK) gallons, cubic feet (ft³), metric liters and cubic meters (m³).

*Actual fill volumes may differ.  Tank volume calculations are based on tank geometries shown below.  These tank shapes are calculated assuming exact geometric solid shapes such as cylinders, circles and spheres.  Actual water and oil tanks may not be perfect geometric shapes or might have other features not accounted for here so, these calculations should only be considered estimates.

Methods to calculate the volume of tanks and the volume of a liquid inside a tank

The methods below will give you cubic measures such as ft3 or m3 depending on your units of measure. If you're calculating filled tank volume by hand using these methods you can covert cubic feet to gallons, and cubic meters to liters using our Volume Conversion Calculator.

Horizontal Cylinder Tank

Horizontal Cylinder Tank Schematic

Total volume of a cylinder shaped tank is the area, A, of the circular end times the length, l. A = πr2 where r is the radius which is equal to 1/2 the diameter or d/2. Therefore:
V(tank) = πr2l


Calculate the filled volume of a horizontal cylinder tank by first finding the area, A, of a circular segment and multiplying it by the length, l.

circular segment

Area of the circular segment, the grey shaded area, is A = (1/2)r2(θ - sinθ) where θ = 2*arccos(m/r) and θ is in radians.  Therefore, V(segment) = (1/2)r2(θ - sinθ)l.  If the fill height f is less than 1/2 of d then we use the segment created from the filled height and V(fill) = V(segment).  However, if the fill height f is greater than 1/2 of d then we use the segment that is created by the empty portion of the tank and subtract it from the total volume to get the filled volume; V(fill) = V(tank) - V(segment).

Vertical Cylinder Tank

Vertical Cylinder Tank Schematic

Total volume of a cylinder shaped tank is the area, A, of the circular end times the height, h. A = πr2 where r is the radius which is equal to d/2. Therefore:
V(tank) = πr2h

The filled volume of a vertical cylinder tank is just a shorter cylinder with the same radius, r, and diameter, d, but height is now the fill height or f.  Therefore:
V(fill) = πr2f

Rectangle Tank

Rectangle Tank Schematic

Total volume of a rectangular prism shaped tank is length times width times height. Therefore,
V(tank) = lwh

The filled volume of a rectangular tank is just a shorter height with the same length and width.  The new height is the fill height or f.  Therefore:
V(fill) = lwf

Horizontal Oval Tank

Horizontal Oval Tank Schematic

Volume of an oval tank is calculated by finding the area, A, of the end, which is the shape of a stadium, and multiplying it by the length, l.  A = πr2 + 2ra and it can be proven that r = h/2 and a = w - h where w>h must always be true.  Therefore:
V(tank) = (πr2 + 2ra)l

Volume of fill of a horizontal oval tank is best calculated if we assume it is 2 halves of a cylinder separated by a rectangular tank.  We then calculate fill volume of 1) a Horizontal Cylinder Tank where l = l, f = f, and diameter d = h, and 2) a Rectangle Tank where l = l, f = f, and rectangle width w is a = w - h of the oval tank.
V(fill) = V(fill-horizontal-cylinder) + V(fill-rectangle)

Vertical Oval Tank

Vertical Oval Tank Schematic

To calculate volume of an oval tank find the area, A, of the end, which is the shape of a stadium, and multiply it by the length, l.  A = πr2 + 2ra and it can be proven that r = w/2 and a = h - w where h>w must always be true.  Therefore:
V(tank) = (πr2 + 2ra)l


To calculate fill volume of a vertical oval tank it is best if we assume it is 2 halves of a cylinder separated by a rectangular tank. With r = w/2 = height of the semicircle ends, we can define 3 general fill position areas.

  • Fill, f < r
    We calculate fill volume using the circular segment method, as in a Horizontal Cylinder Tank, for the filled portion.
  • Fill, f > r and f < (r+a)
    The filled volume is exactly 1/2 of the cylinder portion plus the volume of fill inside the rectangular portion.
  • Fill, f > (r+a) and f < h
    We calculate fill volume using the circular segment method, as in a Horizontal Cylinder Tank, for the empty portion.  Volume will be V(tank) - V(segment).

Horizontal Capsule Tank

Horizontal Capsule Tank Schematic

We treat a capsule as a sphere of diameter d split in half and separated by a cylinder of diameter d and height a.  Where r = d/2.
V(sphere) = (4/3)πr3, and
V(cylinder) = πr2a, therefore
V(capsule) = πr2((4/3)r + a)

Sphere Cap with radius R, height h

Volume of fill for a horizontal capsule is done by using the circular segment method for the Horizontal Cylinder and, with a similar approach, using calculations of a spherical cap for the sphere section of the tank where,
V(spherical cap) = (1/3)πh2(3R - h)

Vertical Capsule Tank

Vertical Capsule Tank Schematic

To calculate the volume of a vertical capsule tank treat the capsule as a sphere of diameter d split in half and separated by a cylinder of diameter d and height a.  Where r = d/2.
V(capsule) = πr2((4/3)r + a)


To calculate fill volume of a vertical capsule calculate in a fashion similar to the method used for the Vertical Oval Tank where r = d/2 = height of each hemisphere end.

  • Fill, f < r
    We calculate fill volume using the spherical cap method, for the filled portion.
  • Fill, f > r and f < (r+a)
    The filled volume is exactly 1/2 of the sphere portion plus the volume of fill inside the vertical cylinder portion.
  • Fill, f > (r+a) and f < h
    We calculate fill volume using the spherical cap method for the empty portion.  Volume will be V(tank) - V(spherical cap).

Horizontal 2:1 Elliptical

Horizontal 2:1 Semi-Elliptical Tank Heads; Tank Schematic

Horizontal 2:1 Elliptical with 2:1 semi elliptical tank heads

Horizontal Dish Ends

Horizontal Dish Only Tank Heads; Tank Schematic

Horizontal Dish Ends with dish only tank heads

 

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Capsules

How are soft capsules made?

A modern technology park and a number of qualified specialists guarantee that Curtis Health Caps provides the service of contract production of soft capsules at the highest level. For encapsulation, we use odorless, tasteless gelatin, which is neutral for the body – beef, pork or fish (depending on the expectations and needs of our customers). In addition, we offer capsules for chewing or chewing, which we produce using a special gelatin mix. Thanks to an efficiently functioning control system, we eliminate all deviations by providing our contractors with products that meet strict quality standards. The encapsulation process in our factories follows strict rules (including GMP, BRC), while complying with applicable national and international law. Soft capsules are a popular form of administration of a medicinal product or dietary supplement, associated with numerous advantages, including:
  • zwiększoną biodostępność,
  • maskowanie zapachu, smaku i nieestetycznego wyglądu,
  • łatwiejsze połykanie w porównaniu do kapsułek twardych i tabletek
  • zabezpieczenie gwarancyjne,
  • możliwość dozowania stałych leków z niewielką ilością substancji pomocniczych,
  • możliwość precyzyjnego dawkowania substancji płynnych i półpłynnych,
  • możliwość zastosowania mniejszej ilości substancji pomocniczych niż w tabletach,
  • obojętność fizjologiczna substancji tworzących otoczkę.

What capsules can we offer you?

As part of the contractual production of medicinal products and dietary supplements, we offer the possibility of individual selection of the shape of soft capsules, from among the four most popular (oval, oblong, round, twist-off) or any other, tailored to the individual preferences of customers. The gelatinous shell of the soft capsule can be transparent or non-transparent (covered), one or two colors, matte or glossy. In the production of soft capsules and contract manufacturing, we always take into account the applicable legal regulations and advise customers in choosing the color of the product. We also offer special solutions for chewable capsules, lozenges, bath capsules, cosmetic products and veterinary products. On our website you will find approximate sizes of soft gelatin capsules, but we would like to point out that the actual size depends on the filling and is determined individually each time.

Gelatin is an essential component of the capsules. We are using:

  • beef gelatin
  • pork gelatin
  • fish gelatin
  • a specially developed “chewing” gelatin mix.

Shapes, sizes and colours of capsules

  • Oval capsules
  • Oblong capsules
  • Round capsules
  • Special shapes – per customized needs
  • Transparent or coloured
  • Mono- or dual coloured
  • Metallic or glossy
Assuming applicable legal regulations, a choice of capsule colours is advised.

Special types of capsules

  • Twist-off capsules
  • Chewable capsules
  • Suckable capsules
  • Bath capsules

OVAL Capsules – available sizes

  • 2 minims | 85 mcl
  • 3 minims | 163 mcl
  • 5 minims | 257 mcl
  • 6 minims | 347 mcl
  • 7,5 minims | 503 mcl
  • 10 minims | 550 mcl
  • 12 minims | 738 mcl
  • 14 minims |738 mcl
  • 16 minims |1062 mcl
  • 20 minims | 1179 mcl

OBLONG Capsules – available sizes

  • 4 minims | 212 mcl
  • 8 minims | 512 mcl
  • 11 minims | 660 mcl
  • 14 minims | 939 mcl
  • 16 minims |1028 mcl
  • 20 minims | 1323 mcl
  • 22 minims | 1210 mcl
  • 24 minims | 1528 mcl

ROUND Capsules – available sizes

  • 1 minims | 62 mcl
  • 5 minims | 246 mcl
  • 38 minims a | 900 mcl
  • 38 minims b | 2280 mcl

TWIST OFF Capsules – available sizes

  • 3 minims | 180 mcl Pearl Two
  • 5 minims | 275 mcl Tube Two
  • 9 minims | 450 mcl Drop Two
  • 17 minims | 1140 mcl Tube Two
 
Sours: https://chc.com.pl/en/contract-production/capsules/
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  2. Shotty definition
  3. Magento release date

Gabapentin

pronounced as (ga' ba pen tin)

Gabapentin capsules, tablets, and oral solution are used along with other medications to help control certain types of seizures in people who have epilepsy. Gabapentin capsules, tablets, and oral solution are also used to relieve the pain of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN; the burning, stabbing pain or aches that may last for months or years after an attack of shingles). Gabapentin extended-release tablets (Horizant) are used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS; a condition that causes discomfort in the legs and a strong urge to move the legs, especially at night and when sitting or lying down). Gabapentin is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. Gabapentin treats seizures by decreasing abnormal excitement in the brain. Gabapentin relieves the pain of PHN by changing the way the body senses pain. It is not known exactly how gabapentin works to treat restless legs syndrome.

Gabapentin comes as a capsule, a tablet, an extended-release (long-acting) tablet, and an oral solution (liquid) to take by mouth. Gabapentin capsules, tablets, and oral solution are usually taken with a full glass of water (8 ounces [240 milliliters]), with or without food, three times a day.

These medications should be taken at evenly spaced times throughout the day and night; no more than 12 hours should pass between doses. The extended-release tablet (Horizant) is taken with food once daily at about 5 PM. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take gabapentin exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

Gabapentin extended-release tablets cannot be substituted for another type of gabapentin product. Be sure that you receive only the type of gabapentin that was prescribed by your doctor. Ask your pharmacist if you have any questions about the type of gabapentin you were given.

Swallow the extended-release tablets whole; do not cut, chew, or crush them.

If your doctor tells you to take one-half of a regular tablet as part of your dose, carefully split the tablet along the score mark. Use the other half-tablet as part of your next dose. Properly dispose of any half-tablets that you have not used within several days of breaking them.

If you are taking gabapentin to control seizures or PHN, your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of gabapentin and gradually increase your dose as needed to treat your condition. If you are taking gabapentin to treat PHN, tell your doctor if your symptoms do not improve during your treatment.

Gabapentin may help to control your condition but will not cure it. Continue to take gabapentin even if you feel well. Do not stop taking gabapentin without talking to your doctor, even if you experience side effects such as unusual changes in behavior or mood. If you suddenly stop taking gabapentin tablets, capsules, or oral solution, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, nausea, pain, and sweating. If you are taking gabapentin to treat seizures and you suddenly stop taking the medication, you may experience seizures more often. Your doctor may decrease your dose gradually over at least a week.

Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with gabapentin and each time you refill your prescription. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.

Gabapentin is also sometimes used to relieve the pain of diabetic neuropathy (numbness or tingling due to nerve damage in people who have diabetes), and to treat and prevent hot flashes (sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) in women who are being treated for breast cancer or who have experienced menopause (''change of life'', the end of monthly menstrual periods). Talk to your doctor about the risks of using this medication for your condition.

This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Before taking gabapentin,

  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to gabapentin, any other medications, or any of the inactive ingredients in the type of gabapentin you plan to take. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the inactive ingredients.
  • you should know that gabapentin is available in different forms that may be prescribed for different uses. Ask your doctor to be sure that you are not taking more than one product that contains gabapentin.
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: antidepressants; antihistamines; medications for anxiety; medications that make you feel dizzy or drowsy; medications for mental illness; naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn, others); opioid (narcotic) medications for pain such as hydrocodone (in Hydrocet, in Vicodin, others), morphine (Avinza, Kadian, MSIR, others), or oxycodone OxyContin, in Percocet, in Roxicet, others); sedatives; medications for seizures; sleeping pills, and tranquilizers. Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
  • if you are taking antacids such as Maalox or Mylanta, take them at least 2 hours before you take gabapentin tablets, capsules, or solution.
  • tell your doctor if you have or have ever had lung or kidney disease. If you will be taking the extended-release tablets, also tell your doctor if you need to sleep during the day and stay awake at night.
  • tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking gabapentin, call your doctor.
  • if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking gabapentin.
  • you should know that this medication may make you drowsy or dizzy, may slow your thinking, and may cause loss of coordination. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this medication affects you, and your doctor agrees that it is safe for you to begin these activities.
  • if you are giving gabapentin to your child, you should know that your child's behavior and mental abilities may change while he or she is taking gabapentin. Your child may have sudden changes in mood, become hostile or hyperactive, have difficulty concentrating or paying attention, or be drowsy or clumsy. Have your child avoid activities that could be dangerous, such as riding a bicycle, until you know how gabapentin affects him or her.
  • remember that alcohol can add to the drowsiness caused by this medication.
  • you should know that your mental health may change in unexpected ways and you may become suicidal (thinking about harming or killing yourself or planning or trying to do so) while you are taking gabapentin for the treatment of epilepsy, mental illness, or other conditions. A small number of adults and children 5 years of age and older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as gabapentin to treat various conditions during clinical studies became suicidal during their treatment. Some of these people developed suicidal thoughts and behavior as early as one week after they started taking the medication. There is a risk that you may experience changes in your mental health if you take an anticonvulsant medication such as gabapentin, but there may also be a risk that you will experience changes in your mental health if your condition is not treated. You and your doctor will decide whether the risks of taking an anticonvulsant medication are greater than the risks of not taking the medication. You, your family, or your caregiver should call your doctor right away if you experience any of the following symptoms: panic attacks; agitation or restlessness; new or worsening irritability, anxiety, or depression; acting on dangerous impulses; difficulty falling or staying asleep; aggressive, angry, or violent behavior; mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood); talking or thinking about wanting to hurt yourself or end your life; withdrawing from friends and family; preoccupation with death and dying; giving away prized possessions; or any other unusual changes in behavior or mood. Be sure that your family or caregiver knows which symptoms may be serious so they can call the doctor if you are unable to seek treatment on your own.

Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.

If you forget to take gabapentin capsules, tablets, or oral solution, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose or if you forget to take gabapentin extended-release tablets, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store the tablets, extended-release tablets, and capsules at room temperature, away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Store the oral solution in the refrigerator.

It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers (such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily. To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out of their sight and reach. http://www.upandaway.org

Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet. Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication is through a medicine take-back program. Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for more information if you do not have access to a take-back program.

In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at 1-800-222-1222. Information is also available online at https://www.poisonhelp.org/help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, immediately call emergency services at 911.

Symptoms of overdose may include the following:

  • double vision
  • slurred speech
  • drowsiness
  • diarrhea

Keep all appointments with your doctor.

Before having any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are taking gabapentin.

If you use a dipstick to test your urine for protein, ask your doctor which product you should use while taking this medication.

Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.

It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

  • Gralise®
  • Horizant®
  • Neurontin®
Last Revised - 05/15/2020

Browse Drugs and Medicines

Sours: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a694007.html
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